1. The curse of God
Sudan’s seventeen year long civil war can be split into four main stages such as the Immediate pre wars in the years 1981-1983,when the incipient bands of Nuer Secessionist rebels first began mobilizing in the Upper Nile. .is the Ayanya movement ii, the Ayanya comes from a name from the Southern secessionist forces that fought against the government during South-Sudan’s first civil war, in the years 1955-1972. Ayanya was an independent operating group. The second stage broke began in the years 1983- 1991 when the SPLA (Sudanese people Liberation Armies) broke out as a powerful multiethnic fighting group in combat with both Sudanese armies and different government sponcerd northern and southern “militias: including small parts of the Ayanya ii. The second stage caused the SPLA to major military advance against the national government and at the same time contradictions, internal to the movements ripping the national governments apart from within. The third stage begins with Mar chai’s 1991 “coup” and it ended with the signing of the formal peace agreement with the government in 1997. Due to this peace agreement sign by Marcher in 1997 it caused a lot of domination violence between south and south people, Southern military leaders, warlords turned their weapons against one another’s civilian population. The fourth stage can be seen as the unraveling of the peace agreement which was signed 1997 and the concoment explosion of the inter- Nuer factional fighting in the Western Upper Nile. The confrontations were thus provoked and planed by the government of Sudan in its direness to promote the fast exploitation of untapped oil reserves in the region. The peace initiatives followed by civilians eventually succeeded in solution of problems of hostility between the western Nuer and Dinka (The country next to Western Nuer). Inter Nuer factional Fighting continued to get better in the Western Upper Nile in to the Year 2000. According to Hutcson each stage brought particular forms of violence but each of these stages created quick reassessment of the participating agents and best meaning of the war on an increasingly demoralized and impoverished Nuer civilian population.Hutchison,(2001:309-310),A curse from God.
2. Background of the History of South Sudan
South-Sudan became independent from The British and the Egyptians in 1956. South Sudan was part of the republic of Sudan and it was called southern Sudan. In 1899 Sudan was colonialized by the British and Egypt powers formalized into the condonium rule. The British rule were the primary administrator of Sudan until the day they gained independence in 2011. British leaders had a “two way policy” for Sudan, while the north side of Sudan worked hard to develop political, economic and cultural as a Arab-Muslim state, the South region was neglected and seen as a underdeveloped country(UDC)Goldstein,(2003:38) . The reason for the two way policy was a nation that there was a lower cost of colonial rule in South-Sudan, and led to the impression that the British rule protected the Southerners from advances from the North and Egypt. In 1946 Britain decided to make South- Sudan and Northern Sudan into one sovereign country. In the year 1952 Britain and Egypt created institutions that would’ve allowed self-governance in South-Africa (S.A). Anxiety and resentment was caused because of language, when the government position in the South was given to the Northern Arabic speakers, while the first language was this English in the south.
This resentment of language by the Southerners, a rebellion of low entencity civil war broke out. This rebellion was led by the Southern Sudan’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and its armies, Ayanya whose first priority for South Sudan was independence. The civil war of low entensity went on until 1972 when a peace agreement was negotiated and applied. (skinner, (2012:2), south Sudan Civilian Disbarment,
3. The active groups since the Split of SPLA in 1991
On 28 August 1991, the two biggest ethnic groups in the south since the split in 1991 of the SPLA will be, the, Dinka (Jieng) and Nuer (Nei ti naath) The conflict between these two ethnic groups started during October and November 1991, when Nuer forces joined with Machar and drove into the Bor Dinka country, killing hundreds of innocent people, and minimizing up to 70% of the Bor Dinka population, this act became known as the Massacre. Bor Dinka of the southern region was thus the home town of John Garang and with the help of the SPLA forces the took revenge on the Nuer countries by returning the favour that led to a South on South violence against the two active groups since the split of the SPLA in 1991.Huthinson (2001; 308-309), A curse from God/.
4. The role of the ethnicity in the conflict of South Sudan
The Beginning of the developments , effort to explain why tests to mobilize the western Nuer with the ethnic group during the time 1991-2000 resulted in an increase of political separation and not an increase in political cohesion. Nuer groups have actively deny mobilizing possibilities while at the same time being pulled into an intra- ethnic conflict.
5. The role of Natural sources in the conflict of South-Sudan
Natural sources played a role in the conflict of Sudan especially in terms of oil, and due to this source, the government’s main priority was to gain control of all the oil in Sudan. The economy was dropping because of the fights over the control of oil between regions. Oil companies closed and also withdrawn their staff within Unity in the South because of these fights. The SPLA prevented the government to take the oil fields and Garang was the leader of this protection of the fields
6. The Most supported model in 1994 of Dr John Garnag’s five Models.
Dr John Garang presented five models fort five possible outcomes for the war in 1994. The first module was a secular democratic New Sudan model, the second model was confederation, leading to a new Sudan. The third model represents the outcome of an old Sudan dominating Khartoum’s autorium. The fourth model is a united black Sudan, and lastly the fifth model is independence. The forth model is thus the model with the most support in the end because Johan Garang believed that, the people will follow him in unity witch mean is that they got support to be one African black Sudan on their way to independence.(Matthew (2013:35-39), South Sudan-From Revolution to Independencechapter 1.
7. The start of the crisis in 2013
The president of the republic of south- Sudan presented in his military uniform that he successfully put down a “coup” attempt in their capital of Juba on December 16, 2015,. The leader of this coup attempt was engaged by the former vice president, Riek Machar and many other previous cabinet ministers and officials f ruling Sudan’s people Liberation movement(SPLA/M), including Rebeca Nyanding Mabior,the widow of the first leader of the SPLA, Eleven alleged coup associates were taken into custody at their homes, but Riek Machar escaped Juba and got reports of over a couple of days, of targeted allies of Nuer in Juda by men dresses up as loyal fighters to the president. The SPLA armies and unity states announce their defection to Riek machar and took over the state capital of Bor and Bentu. In secure tephone places Riek Machar disagreed that he had anything to do with being involved in a coup, but then told the armies to take control of Salva Kirr and then presented his plans of attack on the Juba region. Despite that the ministers that was in custody came from different communities across South Sudan, Western media reports tribal terms of Salva kirr’s Dinka against Rick Machar’s Nuer. The targeted killings in Juba and revenge killings by Dinka towards Nuer in Akobo and Bor in the Southern state (Joglei) seemed to bear this out. The coup was said to have begun with the world’s two biggest ethnic groups(Nuer and Dinka). Riek Machar and associate plotter boycotted the meeting of SPLM’s National Liberation council (NLC), which Salva kirr denounced Riek Machars strident terms. While the government of South-Sudan kept to their version of events, they presented little relevant evidence to support their claim of a plot, and there are not, many governments who have accepted it, but instead a strong pressure was set towards this plot to release the eleven detainers. See saw battles were fought over the control of Bor, Bentu and Malaka (the capitals of Jongle(South), Unity and upper Nile (north) forces) as well as the oil fields within Unity, because of this battle that effected the oil field of Unity, companies shut down and also withdrawn their staff. The claim was that people showed loyalty to Riek Machar, but Riek’s priority defecting gharisons in the three main states. Th3e south received Military support from Uganda as well as the JEM forces, in the rebeliation to their neighboring country the Blue Nile and the South Kordofan region. International pressure provided the hostile agreement that is an agreement on paper but with no immediate settlement for monitoring on ground level. The beginning of February nearly 750 000 people were estimated to have been killed in the fighting in Juba and other three states. Many fled from the Republic of south Sudan to neighboring countries including Sudan and the estimated dead’s were approximately from 1000 to 10000000. Johnson (1994:1-2), the crisis in South Sudan
8. Civilians that is weoponized
The SPLM’s name was derived because they were not often armed and also was not a uniformed force. Civilians armed themselves for their own protection throughout the 1990’s, because of Riek Machars group’s involvement in a series of internal Nuer civil wars. The series of conflict between the cattle keeping muld and their unweaponised country, led to large and illegal re-arment and escalation of high violence against civilians on both sides(southern and northern). Civilians got some of the weapons via Khartoum. They also got they weapons from Iran and Chiina.
In conclusion the civil war of South Sudan has been going on for a while. Sudan strive to independence and gained it from the British and the Egyptians. The civil war is a war against two counties that is in the same state, like south on south fighting, as we seen that the south and the south were fighting because of language, but like every strive of conflict there will com an solution and negotiations will be made and peace agreements will be followed. South Sudan’s conflict will come to an end.