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1. “The assets of the three richest people in the world match the combined annual GDP’s of the 48 poorest countries.” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. Good for them – they worked hard to get their wealth
b. The only problem I have with this is that this money is in their bank account and not in mine
c. No problem with this – many of these people give huge amounts to charities
d. I think that it is morally wrong for anyone to have that much money
e. I think that active steps should be taken to correct such immoral wealth imbalances
Choice now: E
Choice in assignment 1: E
Notes:
My choice of answer remains the same as my first assignment. As much as rich people work very hard for their money, this a typical example where distributive justice must be exercised. It is morally wrong to acquire so much wealth for a few individuals when the majority of the population live under unacceptable inhumane conditions. How can one justify personal assets equal to GDP of a number of poor countries, this is downright unacceptable. Active steps to curb this wealth imbalance must be taken
2. “Unless fossil-fuel use slows dramatically, the earth’s average temperature could rise by six degrees Celsius in the next 100 years.” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. Who cares?
b. I don’t believe this climate change nonsense
c. Six degrees will make winters much more bearable to me personally
d. I’m a bit concerned about this, but there is nothing that I can do about it
e. I’m a bit concerned about this, but why should I invest my personal time, effort or money in solving a general social problem
f. I think that individually we can and should strive to solve this problem for the greater good
Choice now: F
Choice in assignment 1: D
Notes:
After going through the choices of answers. It helps me reflect what I learnt in case study seven on sustainability, we all have a very important role to play in reducing fossil fuels. A quick quiz on ecological footprint put everything into perspective and it is what helped me changed my original choice. There are certain choices we make in life without understanding the full impact, one only gets to realize whether the choice was right or wrong when awareness is raised around the issue. It is a comforting feeling to realize a personal opinion is the overall consensus among other people, this greatly helps towards achievement of a goal. If all minds are thinking alike and willing to do something about it
3. “If the present growth trends in world population, industrialization, pollution, food production, and resource depletion continue unchanged, the limits to growth on this planet will be reached sometime within the next one hundred years. The most probable result will be a rather sudden and uncontrollable decline in both population and industrial capacity.” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. I don’t believe this tale of doom.
b. Yes we are consuming natural resources too fast, but I don’t think this is a problem as there is plenty of time to find technological solutions to problems that emerge
c. Yes we are consuming natural resources too fast. The first priority in solving this is to put the brakes on human population growth.
d. Yes we are consuming natural resources too fast. The first priority in solving this is for rich people to reduce their consumption significantly.
e. Yes we are consuming natural resources too fast. The first priority is for poor people to not have more kids than they can afford.
f. Yes we are consuming natural resources too fast. And frankly I don’t see any solution because increasing consumption is the basis of our economic growth.
Choice now: C
Choice in assignment 1: F
Notes:
I have changed my opinion regarding my original choice we have a lot of factors to consider in order to ensure the limits of growth are not reached. Solution does not only lie in putting a stop to poor people having more kids than they can afford. It forms part of the solution but we need to dig deeper into other areas like pollution industrialization and resource depletion. Everyone has a role to play issue is getting the buy in from every individual in all continents to take some responsibility in limits of growth and how we can all contribute to improve standards. Who has the time to run with projects like this in developing countries this is an area where we find ourselves constantly failing because we are not giving the subject the attention it requires. Developed countries have an advantage as they are already taking some measures to alleviate some of these challenges. Developing countries on the other hand remains in greater danger due to lack of resources and technology.
My choice c is a bit harsh but it is a measure we must consider the less numbers we have in population growth the easier the burden will be on utilization of the resources we have currently. It is unfair to tell family wanting to have children to put it on hold because of the rate at which population growth is increasing so rather than asking them not to have children entirely. Rather reduce the number of children they can have as it will benefit everyone in the long run if we are in control of our population growth which ultimately helps us manage the pollution volumes resource utilization and other measures we are required to monitor closely.
4. “If arctic ice melting continues, we are likely to see the loss of two thirds of the world’s polar bear population within 50 years.” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. Who cares?
b. If it boils down to choosing between driving a luxury SUV and worrying about polar bears I’ll take the car any day.
c. While this is sad, polar bears aren’t really very important to my personal welfare which is my primary concern.
d. While this is sad, polar bears aren’t really very important to general human social welfare.
e. I don’t think polar bears are all that important to human welfare. However, their plight is a symptom of climate change which is a big problem to future human welfare.
f. I think it is morally unacceptable for humans to put their interests ahead of the rights of other species like polar bears.
Choice now: F
Choice in assignment 1: F
Notes:
Every species, like every person, is unique, with its own history and destiny and when species are lost, ecosystems start to lose functionality and become more prone to collapse. Humans have unintentionally affected the lives of Polar Bears through pollution and global warming as well and as a result of this their natural habitat continues to be destroyed. For example if the icy water of the Arctic region continue to melt, the water is full of toxins and chemicals that can destroy the seals they depend on for food. Polar bears are known as an umbrella species hence many animals are connected to polar bears via a food web like the arctic fox that depends on the polar bear for food as they eat the left over seal remains after the polar bear is done. In 2008, the polar bear became the first animal to be added to the Endangered Species Act list of threatened species because of global warming. According to research polar bears have one of the slowest reproductive rates. In the course of their lifespan females produce an average of only five litters
5. “Imagine you find out that some students get together, buy good assignments from previous years and use them, taking care to not use the same example twice on one group site and making sure the name of the original author is replaced by their own.” My personal opinion about this practice is most closely described by:
a. I have heard that Unisa might be using sophisticated plagiarism detecting software like Turnitin and, if this is the case, the chances of getting caught are just too great. I don’t want to get into trouble.
b. Not only will I participate, I am going to be the one who sells assignments next year for cash.
c. I am not sure what the rules say but if this is against the rules I won’t do it.
d. I am not sure what is the right thing to do here or what is expected of me now that I know this?
e. The problem with cheating is that it undermines everyone’s qualification, not just those who are participating
f. Someone needs to report this because it is intellectual fraud, and that someone is going to be me.
Choice now: F
Choice in assignment 1: A
Notes:
As a person in life you should always do the right thing, always do things that will bring happiness in you and people around you. Whatever that you do or consider as moral you would not have a problem if we suggest to make it a universal law for everyone to practice it, for example, if you enjoy cheating in school you would not mind if we allow everyone to cheat in school. If a certain Act would not have the good end result, to me that is immoral. I will report the above stated matter because it does not do anyone any good
6. “#FeesMustFall” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. I don’t really care about this so long as no-one tries to disrupt my studies.
b. If these people want education let them earn the money to pay for it like me.
c. Education is everyone’s right, not just the right of the rich.
d. Education for everyone is in the interests of the whole country and so it should be fully funded by the state.
e. #FeesMustFall – see you on the streets Comrades!!!!!!
Choice now: D
Choice in assignment 1: D
Notes:
Principle 2 – Equality of Fair Opportunity Equality of Fair opportunity provides that everyone has a fair and equal opportunity to compete for desirable public or private offices and positions. This entails that society must provide all citizens with the basic means necessary to participate in such competition, including appropriate education and health care. To put the principle in terms of Societal formula, it holds that all citizens of some society count as the relevant agents, the desired goal is offices and positions, Education and the obstacles people shouldn’t face include social class and family background.

In South Africa, from apartheid era to the recent era of freedom, few steps have been taken to eradicate
the issue of inequality and ensure equal opportunity. For example, in Gauteng Province there’s a “free Wi-Fi”, libraries in almost every corner, most public schools, more specifically in the western cape are equipped with almost if not all the necessary equipment, like computers, laboratories and other equipment’s in almost every school for the learners to access internet and use the laboratories to enhance their knowledge at any given time.
On the other hand we have those provinces that the government always do not take into consideration when distributing the resources, for example, eastern cape, Limpopo, North West, etc. and I strongly believe that the majority of the children who live below the food poverty line are from the abovementioned province that the society do not take into consideration when they are exercising their political philosophy. As such, the high rate of poverty or class struggle is the result of insufficient equality of fair opportunities to all the South African citizens. That is why I opted that the education should be funded by government.

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7. “Every day some 20,000 children die prematurely from poverty related causes, mostly treatable diseases.” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. Who cares?
b. It’s hard to say it, but given the rising human population, perhaps this is a blessing in disguise for the human species as a whole
c. It’s hard to say it, but this just means less people competing with me for scarce opportunities and resources.
d. This is morally wrong, but practically, I think that it would cost too much money to solve
e. It is morally unacceptable for a single child to die of a preventable disease and we should collectively fix this irrespective of the cost.
Choice now: E
Choice in assignment 1: E
Notes:
Having learnt about Utilitarianism, I have maintained my option E. We have to strive for morally good actions which help the greatest number of people. Allowing people to die from poverty related diseases because we feel that is what will help reduce population figures is unacceptable. It would be a moral act to teach the poor people about family planning than neglect them by not offering any aid in preventing deaths from poverty related diseases. We need to find ways to sustain the population figures we have today and work on maintaining a certain quarter of human population especially in developing countries which ensures population growth is within the acceptable numbers in terms of resources to provide for the families
8. “In 2010, Whitey Basson the CEO of Shoprite earned ZAR 620,000,000.00.” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. Good for him – he worked hard to earn this.
b. The only problem I have with this is that this money is in Basson’s bank account and not in mine.
c. No problem with this. I’m sure Basson donates huge amounts to charities.
d. I think that it is morally wrong for anyone to earn that much money.
e. I think that active steps should be taken to correct such immoral executive remuneration practices
Choice now: E
Choice in assignment 1: E
Notes:
I think that it’s moral wrong for anyone to earn that much money and I think instead of an individual getting such earnings, it is best to share the motivation and skills to other people so they can also find work. There are many people living in poverty mainly because of unemployment so rather create employment with such earning and you will help fight poverty. Unfortunately there are no quick and easy solutions to inequality problem however without substantive improvements in the human capital of the poor, income inequality will remain unacceptably wide.
9. “The wealth of the few depends upon the poverty of many.” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. So long as I am amongst the few I don’t care
b. This is just not true – the rich are simply more “diligent, intelligent, and above all frugal”.
c. This is just not true – if it were not for the generous wealthy, the poor would be even poorer than they are.
d. This is absolutely true – there is only so much wealth in the world at any one moment so if one person has more than their share someone else has to have less than their share
e. This is absolutely true and given how much poverty there is we ought to do something about it

Choice now: E
Choice in assignment 1: E
Notes:
On difference Principle, Social and economic inequalities should be arranged so that they are both to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged persons, and attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of equality of opportunity.(Garrett 2002)
My believe on this matter is that if the class struggle continues to exist or even grow for that matter, many social issues would begin to gain strength. If this inequality goes on with no better solution to it, many social issues like crime, for example, robbery will grow at an amazing rate. Many of us might not be aware of this but many criminals are of lower class and almost all the time when they feel like committing crime they move from lower class (their class) to middle or upper class to commit a crime (for example if a certain individuals are well known for being wealthy they are more likely to experience the stress of a break-in in their household. The only possible way to eradicate the issue of slavery, capitalism is to ensure equality through the employment of John Rawls’s Veil of ignorance o? Communism which ensures equal distribution of wealth
10. “One out of every five South Africans lives below the food poverty line.” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. Who cares?
b. If population growth rates of the poor were not so high they wouldn’t be so poor.
c. If they worked harder, they wouldn’t be so poor.
d. This is sad, but to be honest, it is not going to stop me from focusing on my own wellbeing first.
e. I think that individually we can and should strive to eliminate poverty.
Choice now: E
Choice in assignment 1: E
Notes:
Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others. By equal liberty, Rawls referred to Political liberty (right to vote, right to hold public office); Freedom of speech and assembly; liberty of conscience and freedom of thought; Freedom of Person; Right to Property; Freedom from Arbitrary Arrest and Seizure. One of the major factors which perpetuate the existence of the issue of children living under food poverty line while others are having a nett worth of ZAR 90 billion in South Africa, is the failure or resistance from our leaders and elites to exercise greatest equal liberty of self-respect, which in turn led to the some children in extreme poverty while others are living a financially stable life (Inequality)
I believe that poverty can be eliminated through education, quality health care services, clean water and job creation. Job creation reduces poverty in a significant way because it gives people income, enabling them to take care of their needs. In most cases, work is the only asset that can help poor people improve their lives and they can gain new skills and knowledge that is vital in improving their lives. According to research people live on less than $2.50 a day and more than 750 million people lack access to clean drinking water which causes diarrhea and while children go to bed with empty stomachs so if we can all be generous and also make donations that goes directly towards getting food to hungry children and their families that are ineed of help and maybe that might also eliminate poverty.
11. “Do not let’s lose sight of what creates wealth. It is open markets, it is capitalism.” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. Absolutely – any threats to the free market must be squashed
b. Yes – capitalism is how we create wealth, but the markets must still be managed a little
c. I’m not sure about this – I think that it might be time to consider some sort of different economic system
d. No – the market needs to be extensively managed to ensure that the wealth that is created is good wealth rather than bad wealth
e. Rubbish – capitalism creates monstrous wealth for a few and abject poverty for many. We need a much more equitable economic system
Choice now: E
Choice in assignment 1: E
Notes:
12. “It is estimated that humans are consuming natural resource at a rate that is 30% above the renewal rate. If we continue to consume in this way we are likely to suffer dire consequences which could include extinction.” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. Yes we are consuming natural resources too fast, but I don’t think this is a problem as there is plenty of time to find technological solutions to problems that emerge
b. Yes we are consuming natural resources too fast. The first priority in solving this is to put the brakes on human population growth.
c. Yes we are consuming natural resources too fast. The first priority in solving this is for rich people to reduce their consumption significantly.
d. Yes we are consuming natural resources too fast. And frankly I don’t see any solution because increasing consumption is the basis of our economic growth.
e. I don’t believe this tale of doom.
Choice now: D
Choice in assignment 1: D
Notes:
Having worked on the sustainability case study. I leant about the footprint calculator which exposed me to other elements which contribute to the consumption of natural resources at an alarming rate. The foot print calculator was an eye opener of the natural resources we consume regularly without taking into consideration the depletion of resources without replenishment to levels of sustainability. Reducing the population growth would mean stabilizing the numbers of consumption of natural resources but this will not necessarily mean that the few natural resources we still have left will not continue to deplete. All in all using reduction of population growth as a means to maintain natural resources consumption is not going resolve the depletion of natural resources. Finding solutions to all contributors listed in the foot print calculator for sustenance of natural resources is the only way to deal with this issue. We need to find alternatives for replenishment of the natural resources we utilize on a daily basis as we go about our daily lives routine.
13. “You discover that your best client is selling tickets to win cars, however, the winners are not chosen at random. The client makes a huge profit after marketing expenses and bonuses.” My personal opinion of what should be done is most closely described by:
a. Everyone is doing this kind of thing these days but still I worry that I will get into trouble if, this gets out. Maybe someone should try to convince the client to stop?
b. I want to know how they decide who gets the cars. Maybe I can get one too!
c. This should be addressed in a written report so that the client can respond formally.
d. This should be discussed with the client from the perspective of the relevant laws to urgently find a solution which will be fair for participants but also good for the business.
e. If this is a significant irregularity then it must be reported to the authorities as required in various prescripts. If this causes the client cancel my contract then I have a duty to report the facts to my successor.
f. I worry a lot about the victims who bought these tickets and about why they are not adequately protected against this kind of scheme. I am going to tell the client that I do not want his business and I am going to lobby for more effective laws and enforcement thereof.
Choice now: D
Choice in assignment 1: D
Notes:
14. “Hard work always pays!!” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. I absolutely believe this.
b. The evidence supports this – look at the likes of Bill Gates.
c. Perhaps this works sometimes.
d. The evidence doesn’t support this – look at mine workers in South Africa.
e. I just don’t believe this.
Choice now: C
Choice in assignment 1: C
Notes:
I realize that not all hard work pays, hard work only pays where equal opportunity system is employed or practiced. On the capitalist system one can hardly say that the owner of wealth and means of production worked hard for their wealth, for example, in south Africa during the apartheid era and even in the nowadays life, the white minority took over the wealth in Africa and not through hard work but through force, mass killing and alienation. On the other hand there is a working class, which is the slaves, the ones who ensures production, they work hard every day but we cannot place them anywhere near the word “wealth”
In the socialist, anti-imperialist or anti-capitalist system, that is when we can say hard work pays because we all get fair and equal opportunity
15. “In 2014, Whitey Basson donated boerewors valued at R100 000 to schools in the country.” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. If it were not for the good people like Basson, the lives of the poor would be so much worse than they already are.
b. As with most wealthy people, Basson clearly takes his responsibility to society very seriously.
c. R100 000 is about 0.016% of the R620 million he earned in 2010. So if he had earned R 1 million he would have donated R161 worth of boerewors.
d. All this charity just makes rich people look like heroes that they are not.
e. How can you possibly say something as ungrateful as option d?
Choice now: D
Choice in assignment 1: D
Notes:
Donating R100000 boerewors while earning an amount of R620 million it as good as doing nothing, the only thing he achieved in giving away that R100 000 b0oerewors is adding a medal to his business’s marketing strategy.
Psychological egoism
Psychological egoism is a theory that holds that human beings always behave selfishly in everything that they do, and that it is impossible for them to behave otherwise. According to this theory, even when human beings appear to be acting out of altruistic, that is, selfless motives, they are actually acting because of some advantage or benefit that they perceive for themselves.
For example; The owner of the company who stand out and say that they are going to help the youth within the community with the internships in order to help them gain experience, but knowing deep down that they are only doing that because they are trying to reduce their monthly tax money and grow the reputation of their business within that community.
In this instant, Whitey Basson did not donate Boerewors because he wanted to help; he did that simply because he wanted to build a good reputation for his business within the school and the society at large
16. “I have missed my assignment 6 deadline for SUS1501 because I had an Economics assignment which is just more important to me.” My personal opinion of what should be done, is most closely described by:
a. I’m going to a doctor I know to get a doctor’s certificate saying I was sick – I wasn’t really sick.
b. I’m going to come up with a really tragic story about my best friend passing away in a car crash and having to attend the funeral – I’m sitting with my best mate now having a good laugh about this.
c. I really can’t afford to fail this module so I’m going to do A. above even though I really feel bad about it.
d. I’m not going to do any of the above because there is always a chance that Unisa will find out and charge me with misconduct.
e. I’m not going to do any of the first three above because eventually Prof Eccles is going to stop believing these stories and then someone who really does have a problem is going to suffer.
f. I’m not going to do any of the first three above because they are morally wrong.

Choice now: F
Choice in assignment 1: F
Notes:
I am not going to do any of the above because to me it is morally wrong, and not because I’m afraid that I might get caught or anything of that nature, but simply because I find it immoral. I also strongly believe that Kant would have found it immoral or stated that “it is highly immoral and lacks humanity” because of the Universal law of categorical imperatives, Kant stated that “Always act in such a way that you would be willing for it to become a general law that everyone else should do the same.”
Kant states that a true moral proposition must not be tied to any particular conditions, including the identity of the person making the decision. A moral maxim must be disconnected from the particular physical details surrounding its proposition and should be applicable to any rational being.
17. “Save the rhino!!” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. Why?
b. Let the people who want to use this resource pay to protect it.
c. We have bigger problems than worrying about rhinos.
d. We must save the rhinos for our children.
e. We must save the rhinos because it is the right thing to do.
Choice now: D
Choice in assignment 1: E
Notes:
My choice has changed slightly as I feel over and above saving the rhino being the right thing to do. We owe it to our children to preserve the animals that might end up extinct if we do not do something about it. We will have no way of preserving our history and natural resources if we do not start taking responsibility.
Saving Rhinos is saving the most lucrative sector, which is tourism, and we will be ensuring the stability of the economy as tourism sector in South Africa generate a significant amount of money towards the stability of the economy. And in that way, the next coming generation will also benefit from the Income Rhinos generate.
That is why I chose to argue that animals are not valuable in themselves but they are valuable only in so far as humans have need. They are instrumental values; they are valuable to us because they ensure our country’s economic stability. We use things that are instrumentally valuable to get us something else. In this case, we use Rhinos on Tourism sector to generate an income for us.
18. “With a shift of only 2 percent of global household income, all the great deprivations of the poorer half of humankind could be avoided.” My personal opinion on this statement is most closely described by:
a. Who cares?
b. Let the poorest work for their money like the rest of us.
c. So long as no one takes 2 percent of my income.
d. Just proves – if poverty was an issue for the rich we would solve it by throwing money at it.
e. Let’s solve it then!
Choice now: B
Choice in assignment 1: E
Notes:
My initial choice was to solve the problem but I have had a mind shift, if we solve the problem by shift of only two percent. This may push poor people to relax and rely on handouts from the rich. We need to solve the problem by teaching them ways and means to generate income, teach them some investment and saving principles. Empowering them to be self-sufficient is the only viable way to help them.
19. A woman was near death from a rare form of cancer. There was one medicine that the doctors thought might perhaps prolong her life. This was sold at the only local pharmacy at 10 times the cost. The woman had no medical aid cover and her only son could simply not afford the medicine.” The most ethical option available to the son is best described by:
a. The son should not steal the medicine because he might end up in prison.
b. He should steal the medicine regardless of a possible prison sentence because saving his mother for a few more months would bring them the most happiness.
c. He should not steal the medicine because stealing is bad and he is not a criminal; he tried to do everything he could without breaking the law so no one can blame him for the consequences.
d. The son should steal the medicine but also accept the prescribed punishment for the crime and eventually pay the pharmacist what he is owed; actions should have consequences.
e. He should steal the medicine because everyone has a right to life, regardless of the law.
f. He should not steal the medicine, because others who are fortunate enough to be able to pay for it may need the medicine just as badly. Their lives are equally significant.
Choice now: C
Choice in assignment 1: C
Notes:
I suggest the son should not do an immoral act by stealing medication for his mother because whether a situation is good or bad depends on whether the action that brought it about was right or wrong. What makes a choice “right” is its conformity with a moral norm
The First Formulation of the Imperative (Universal law)
I strongly believe that if the child decided to steal the medication? to save her mother’s life, deontologists would have found it immoral or stated that “it is highly immoral and lacks humanity” because on the Universal law of categorical imperatives, Kant stated that “Always act in such a way that you should be willing for it to become a general law that everyone else should do the same”
20. “Greed is good” My personal opinion of what should be done, is most closely described by:
a. It’s not good or bad. It’s just how things are.
b. Absolutely! If it wasn’t for greed we would never achieve anything.
c. I’m not sure. Sometimes I think that it’s good. At other times I think that it’s bad.
d. It depends on how you define “greed”.
e. Absolutely not! Greed is bad. It leads to much pain and suffering.

Choice now: E
Choice in assignment 1: D
Notes:
I changed my mind because I thought that some can actually try and define greed in a different way to represent a good future for us all. But through a thorough researching, hypothesizing, conjugating and contemplating I have learned that there’s no way you can use greed for the better, greed is just wrong, it creates a class struggle and creates capitalists that are always ready to alienate and enslave a great population for their own self-serving motives.
Greed is bad as it drives people to do unethical, immoral, and illegal things in the pursuit of more money. Rich people can invest their wealth in stocks, bonds, real estate, and other financial investment when they could still be contributing more to society as we have children that are dying of poverty. Another bad result of greed is people using government money to help themselves get rich and build their wealth while taking tax money that could go to help the poor and needy. Most of this money is said to help benefit the poor and needy, but this has yet to be seen. It seems that the money instead goes into the pocket of those who don’t need any more money; while the rich get richer the poor continue to get poorer.

Summary
Number unchanged: 14
Number changed: 6

Conclusion

In this module I’ve learned about the three main theories of utilitarianism, deontology, and virtue ethics. Utilitarianism theory can be summed up by the theory that seeks to maximize utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number of people. The utilitarianism theory is the one most aligned with common sense, most people use this theory to provide easy answers to ethical situations without realizing it is a theory. Sometimes the result of using this theory can interfere with what we may believe is right or wrong. While utilitarianism looks at the consequences of a given act, deontology focuses on the reason for which an act is done. Deontology also known as duty ethics is derived from the Greek word deon, which means duty. Deontology doesn’t deny that acts don’t have consequences but insists the consequences of such acts should not play a role in our moral evaluation of an act. It says something is moral provided it follows the law. Deontology is judged, based on the action of an individual. Deontology depicts what an individual thought to have something done. If the actions are good in deontology with bad results, it is considered good, while when the actions are bad with good results it is considered bad. Utilitarian is a theory that says something is right, if it makes one happy and goes with combat majority. It bases its argument on the results of the actions by an individual. It is consequential. If the results are good with a bad aim, it is considered bad and the results are good with a bad aim, it is considered good.

Utilitarian and deontological reasoning have few similarities. They both determine what human actions are right or wrong. The main differences in the two are as follows: utilitarian is consequential. It has its judgment made on the aftermath of an action. This means that after an action is done, what comes after, determine the results of the actions, and is where judgments would be based on. The moral of the action is not based on what the person had thought to do. On the other hand, deontology takes the opposite way. Our actions are determined to be good or bad for why we do them. If we had good intention of doing things, our actions are morally good no matter what the results. As well if we do something bad, our actions are morally bad no matter what the results. Utilitarianism is concerned with our action results while deontology is concerned with what we thought of when in action.
While egoism is different from utilitarianism in that it suggests that individuals should always be guided by what is in their own self-interest. Utilitarianism proposes that a person’s actions should be undertaken with a view to producing the most happiness. This does not necessarily entail producing the most happiness for one’s self, but could be for society for a whole.

I’ve also learned about the population growth, poverty and the effect that they have on our environment. Human population has an impact on environment in many way as rising populations put increasing demands on the natural resources such as land, water and energy supplies. The more the global population grows, the more weight it places on the environment as every human being consumes their share of resources and with so many birth originated from poor communities due to lack of resources on engaging in birth control and the burdens placed on the environment grow heavier and heavier each day. As human communities use more resources, they generate contaminants, such as air and water pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and they also increase larger quantities of waste
While natural resources are being depleted, clean air is growing scarce, climates are shifting and the entire ecosystems are being affected. While human places stress on the environment, poverty in particular has played a major role in environmental degradation across the world as poor communities lack the proper knowledge when it comes to production techniques hence the ways in which they use resources to help them survive are harmful to the resources around them and ultimately the world at large such as air pollution and water pollution. Air pollution is one of the major consequences of poor production techniques while water pollution is a result of poor water management, once again due to lack of knowledge and are extremely harmful to human health.
In order to help the state of the environment, we must first help the state of the poor and education is key. We all need to know what the proper and harmless methods are in which they can dispose of our waste. We must learn how to tend a healthy and sound agricultural system without the reliance on degraded soil, and other unfit resources as we only have one planet and we should all do our part to ensure that its protected by combining our ways of living with deeper respect and understanding of what nature provides as our entire life support system is dependent on the wellbeing of all of the species living on earth.