1.8 Operational definition of key terms
The terms defined herein were used in this study and have been defined to enable the reader ease of understanding of the contents of the paper.
• Online banking service (OBS): A service offered by banks that enables customers to handle account management and account transaction directly on the internet through the banks own website. This includes money transfers, cheque book orders, updating personal profile and investments option access.
• Service Quality (SQ)/ online banking service quality (OBSQ): The overall comparison between the perceptions and performance of the online banking system by the customers
• SERVQUAL: an instrument that has 22 items created for measuring customers? expectations and perceptions from a service along five quality dimension: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy (Parasuraman et al., 1996)
• Conceptual Model/ Framework: an analytical tool with several variations
E_SQ: An instrument similar to the SERVQUAL also created for measuring service quality but it is specific to online services. It has two scales;
? E_S_QUAL: This scale is made up of 4 dimensions with 22 attributes which are system availability, efficiency, fulfillment and privacy.
? E_ResS-QUAL: This scale is made up of 3 dimensions with 11 attributes including responsiveness, compensation and contact (Parasuraman et al., 2005)
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
This chapter discusses the framework of the study, basic knowledge on the study aspects, E- banking services and online systems quality. It also discusses the model on which the study will be further developed.
2.1 Mutual Trust Bank Bangladesh Limited- Company overview
The Company was incorporated on September 29, 1999 under the Companies Act 1994 as a public company limited by shares for carrying out all kinds of banking activities with Authorized Capital of BDT 200 million divided into 2,000,000 ordinary shares of BDT 100 each. At present, Authorized Capital of the company is BDT 10,000,000,000 (BDT 10 Billion) divided into 1,000,000,000 (One billion) ordinary shares of BDT 10 each. MTBL has a network of 103 branches and 145 ATMs around the countrywide by the close of 2017 (MTB2017).
The Company was also issued Certificate for Commencement of Business on the same day and was granted license on October 05, 1999 by Bangladesh Bank under the Banking Companies Act 1991 and started its banking operation on October 24, 1999. The bank conducts all types of commercial banking activities including foreign exchange business and other financial services. During the first two years of operations, the bank’s main focus was on the delivery of personalized customer services and expansion of its clientele base. (Anon., n.d.)
MTBLs products include savings accounts, current accounts, debit and credit cards, foreign currency accounts, loans for individuals and businesses. MTBL introduced its online service in 2010 December and offers the service to both its retail and corporate customer with benefits that enable them access their accounts in real time giving them facilities that include statement access, bill payments, interbank transfers for both local and foreign currency.(MTB 2017).
2.2 Online banking service
Online banking service (OBS) also known as web e-banking, began on the 1980’s in banks predominantly in the United States and in Europe; in 1995, The presidential Savings bank, The Wells Fargo, Chase Manhattan went into online banking as a way of taking the bank to the people hence led to banks that operate solely via the internet and have no “four-wall entity” (Ross- Bainbridge, 2006). From 2001, online banking grew exponentially enabling banks to offer
better services and features i.e. balance inquiry, cheque book order, bill payment and money transfers as they reduce operating costs and expenditure, it has also provided a way to enable people access banking facilities without having to visit the bank (Olivia, 2011). In addition it saves time and money as well as minimizing teller errors. OBS has emerged as a new marketing channel for banking products and services to growing and emerging economies like Bangladesh. It is tailored to offer customers easy access to the bank while adding more value such as convenience; this has led it to become not only a competitive advantage but a competitive necessity (Gan and Clemes, 2006).
With the dynamic ever growing information driven economy, the banking industry Bangladesh has found itself booming in online banking laying down a strong base for low cost banking and increase in the use of mobile phones for financial capacity especially in rural areas. Although the studies on the effects of OBS had been sparse in the country with one of the studies done by Munir MMM (Anon., n.d.) on the phenomena, OBS has become a common household name in Bangladesh. Cooperative bank of Bangladesh pioneered the online banking wave in Bangladesh in 2004 by enabling customers to access their account using the mobile phones. It offered services including balance inquiry, SMS alerts on credit and debit card transactions to accounts, alerts on ATM transactions on the account. (Anon., n.d.)
The PC and Telephone banking enables customer to also communicate with the banks using numbers availed to them by the banks to their contact centers which operate twenty four hours. Computer use a code given to the customer for verification and authentication then they can receive or send messages. They also have cards that are used at point of sale where the value for products and services are directly transferred to the merchant without having to go and withdraw cash or wait for clearing. Transactions are valued for money immediately.