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1.1 Explain the term “Safeguarding”
The department of health guidance on the care act 2014, defines safeguarding as;
Working with anyone within a health care setting who have care and support needs, and who may be in vulnerable circumstances, to keep them safe from abuse or neglect.

1.2 Explain own role and responsibilities in safeguarding individuals.

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Promote well-being and to prevent abuse and neglect from happening, also to ensure the safety of service users.

(Next section also includes 2.1 Identify signs and/ or symptoms associated with each of the following types of abuse)

1.3 Define the following terms:

1.3 a Physical abuse:
Physical abuse is an intentional act that is meant to cause harm or trauma to another individual. (on purpose and behaviour has caused injury.)
2.1a Signs and symptoms
A sign of physical abuse could be bruises or marks on the skin, caused by injury. Someone, who is usually chatty or affectionate, not talking or flinching when you go near them, e.g. for a hug or handshake.

1.3 b Domestic abuse:
Domestic abuse, or domestic violence, is an incident, or a pattern of incidents of controlling, threatening, and violent behaviour. Usually towards another person in an intimate or family relationship.
2.1 b Signs and symptoms
A sign of domestic abuse, again same a physical, could be bruising due to a physical injury. The breakdown of a relationship and/ or tension between two people. Another sign that is easy to spot is body language, and verbal response. These .can be a good indicator towards mental state. Short answers and tone of voice, arms folded and closed of body language.

1.3 c Sexual abuse:
Sexual abuse is undesired sexual behaviour, or actions, committed by one person directed at another
2.1 c Signs and symptoms
signs of sexual abuse, bruises, marks, or scars, again physical abuse can be a sign of any sort of abuse or neglect. In bad cases their may also be symptoms of an STI (sexually transmitted infection)

1.3 d Emotional/Psychological abuse:
Emotional abuse is any action towards someone that may diminish,or cause therm to feel a loss of, their dignity, identity, and self- worth.
2.1 d Signs and symptoms:
lack of motivation. Drop in confidence, low self esteem. Someone acting out of character, for example if you know them to be quite an out going person, and they become shy or reserved. Obvious signs may be things like depression, anxiety and/ or not wanting to go out. Feeling confused and/ or not wanting to make decisions for yourself.

1.3 e Financial/ Material abuse:
Financial abuse is classed as ” the illegal or unauthorized use of a persons property.” this includes money, and other valuables, e.g. pension book, or cheque book.
2.1 e Signs and symptoms:
money going missing, from accounts or wallet/purse. “oh my son has my card” feeling like you cant spend your own money or have your own bank account. Having to explain what you are spending and why. Being pressured into making financial decisions.

1.3 f Modern slavery:
Modern slavery is an umbrella term used to cover many types of offence like, forced/bonded labour, forced marriage, and human trafficking.
2.1 f signs and symptoms:
Not having any proof of earnings. Being deprived of basic needs no food or drink. Not being able to have a wash. Being under the impression they are bonded to a situation, debt wise or financially.
Not having the resources to contact friends and family on their own terms.

1.3 g Discriminatory abuse:
Discriminatory abuse is is treating someone unfairly or differently because people think they are different from them. For example this could be to do with ethnicity, gender, or sexuality.
2.1 g Signs and symptoms:
Avoiding someone because of the way they look, ethnicity. Not talkig to someone because of the way they act. Someone being withdrawn because they feel uncomfortable because of the way they are being treated.

1.3 h Institutional/ Organisational abuse:
Institutional abuse is classed as “the mistreatment of people brought about by poor or inadequate care or support.” For example, if management went against someone’s wishes/ requests in order to make the business run smoother.
2.1 h Signs and symptoms:
set bedtimes and meal times/ strict timetables. Insufficient staff/ high turnover resulting in poor quality of care. Failure in responding to complaints. Failure to offer choice and/or promote independence. Poor documentation/missing documents, for example, a missing care plan. Discussing personal information within a public setting.

1.3 iSelf – neglect:
Self neglect is when an individual refuses/neglects to attend to themselves, whether this be basic needs, such as daily care and personal hygiene, or skipping/missing meals. “Self neglect is a general term used to describe a vulnerable adult living in a way that puts his or her health, safety, and well-being at risk”
2.1i Signs and symptoms:
poor hygiene, low self- esteem. Improperly dressed. Fluctuation in weight, e.g. weight loss. Hoarding, lack of food, clothing, and facilities. Altered emotional state, feeling
down or anxious. Lack of motivation, may include things like not wanting to get out of bed.

1.3 j Neglect by others:
Neglect is the ongoing failure to meet someone else’s basic needs. Again, like self neglect, this could include things like; refusing to attend to someone’s basic needs, “lack of mental, social or physical contact or stimulation” failure to provide decent clothing, for example all clothes have holes in them or are dirty. Neglect can also include ignorance towards someone’s emotional/psychological state and well-being.
2.1 j signs and symptoms:
Malnourishment, altered emotional state, again this may include mood swings and things like feeling anxious. Providing care in a way the person receiving isn’t comfortable with/ dislikes. Giving incorrect medication/ failure to give prescribed medication. Refusal of visitors, family and friends. Ignoring or isolating someone.

1.4 Describe harm:
Harm is any sort of injury,usually physical, that is deliberately inflicted towards another person as well as to yourself.

1.5 Describe restrictive practices:

(201.3) Know how to respond to suspected or alleged abuse.
3.1. Explain the actions to take if there are any suspicions that an individual is being abused:
If you have suspicions that an individual is being abused, you should report it as soon as you notice. This should be reported to a senior member of staff on duty, lead nurse or manager. It should also be documented and you should write down things such as:
Who was involved?
If you witnessed it, what was it that happened to make you think that abuse is going on?
Where did it all take place?
When did it happen?
Why/how did it happen?
3.2. Explain the actions to take if an individual alleges they are being abused:
Reassure the individual that the matter will be taken seriously, offer them support and advice on where to go to if they would like to take the matter further. Report to senior member of staff, again the lead nurse or management. Also make sure to document it and go through it as you would if you were reporting it and asking the individual to state the facts, who was involved, when it happened. (see bullet points above).

3.3 Identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved:
Preserving evidence is important, as it is private information about an individual, especially when abuse is involved. The evidence should be kept somewhere safe and archived, in the case of written evidence, and if there is physical evidence that abuse has happened, this should be taken note of when being documented, for example you can note down cuts, bruises, abrasions, on a body map/ chart. If you suspect abuse is going on, pictures of the cuts, bruises, or abrasions should be photographed so there is evidence it all happened, these should also be archived.

(201.4) Understand the national and local context of safeguarding and protection from abuse:
4.1 Identify relevant legislation, national policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse:

(Next section also includes 4.2 Explain the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse)

National policies that relate to protection are:
Care Quality Commission (CQC)
4.2:Role of this agency:
It is Care Quality commission that monitor, inspect, and also regulate services, within a health and social care setting. Make sure they meet satisfactory standards of quality and safety. In terms of safeguarding it is there duty to check that care providers have affective systems and processes in place to help keep children and adults safe from neglect and abuse.

Court of Protection
4.2: Role of this agency:
The court of protections is a “great importance” as it is there to safeguard vulnerable people that may lack mental capacity and may need help making decisions. “The Court of Protection is a court that deals with the decisions or actions taken under the Mental Capacity Act.”

Crown Prosecution Service (CPS)
4.2: Role of this agency:
The crown prosecution service is responsible for examining evidence and deciding whether or not to take the proceedings further through court to the “prosecution stage”. They also prepare cases for court and product the prosecutions.

The Deprivation of Liberty/Safeguarding (DOLS)
4.2: Role of the agency:
The Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DOLS) are also part of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. DOLS are put in place to make sure that people in a health and social care setting, e.g. care homes or hospitals, are looked after in a way that does not restrict their rights to freedom.

The Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA):
4.2: Role of the agency:
“The role of the ISA is to prevent unsuitable people from working with children and vulnerable adults”
The ISA also considers convictions and cautions which would be considered relevant, within the job you work/ are applying for. IF there is a concern, whether it be abuse or another issue, that a person may cause harm or put another person at risk, the ISA can add to something called a “Barred list” which they then manage and take into account whether you would be a risk again in the future.

The Mental capacity Act 2005
4.2: Role of this agency:
The Mental Capacity Act (MCA) provides support, leadership, guidance, and advice to “protect and empower individuals over the age of 16, who may lack capacity, to make their own decisions about their care and treatment.”

4.3. Identify factors which have featured in reports into serious cases of abuse and neglect:

Dunmurry Manor care home – (ran by Runwood Homes Group):
Reported nationally for serious failures to safeguard and protect vulnerable service users from physical, sexual, psychological/ emotional abuse and neglect, neglect so sevre that few service users were found with pressure sores “down to he bone” and to be infected with E coli. This resulted in several members of staff, nurses included, being charged with serious neglect and for the home to be closed down by CQC for further investigation. Belfast police also investigated the care home on reports of its “horrific catalogue of inhuman treatment” three times between 2015 and 2016, but each time the case was said to have been closed without charges or prosecutions.

4.4. I identify sources of information and advice about your own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse:
Company policies and procedures on safeguarding, management/nurse in charge/colleagues. Training/ training centres and supervision. Higher authorities such as, social services, CQC, Independent Safeguarding Authority, Safeguarding Adults Board.

4.5 Identify when to seek support in situations beyond your experience and expertise:
You’ve been asked to do something that goes against policies and procedures, or see someone doing something that goes against company polices and procedures.
If you think, or see, that there is suspected abuse going on.

(201.5)Understand ways to reduce the likelihood of abuse:
5.1 a: Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by: working with person centred values:
Person centred values involve, respecting their rights and their individuality, privacy and independence, choice, good communication and respecting the individuals decisions.

5.1 b: Encouraging active participation:
Recognising the person’s rights as an individual to participate in the activities and decisions of their day to day life as independent as possible. Allowing the individual choice and decisions in their day to day care needs, this then lowers the risk of abuse.

5.1 c: Promoting choice and rights:
Giving the individual a choice will make them feel more independent/valued and empowered, by having a say in what they do and what happens in their day to day life, reducing the likelihood of them becoming a victim of abuse.

5.1 d: Supporting individuals with awareness of personal safety:
Reassure them, make them feel as safe as possible, for example by gaining and maintaining their trust. Make note of any changes within their well-being/ state of mind, this may include changes in appetite, changes in weight, as well as changes in their mood. If you feel the situation may be getting worse, report to who it may concern.

5.2:Explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse:
The importance of a complaints procedure is to give the right to people to be heard/ supported and to make their views known. An accessible complaints procedure is important for those that may not know how to go about putting in a complaint. They are easy to use and understand, take you through step by step and solves complaints quicker.