A zeolite or zeolite-type material is in fine powder form when it is synthesized or modified

A zeolite or zeolite-type material is in fine powder form when it is synthesized or modified. Zeolites are applied in several processes, such as cracking, separation, purification, isomerization, refining hydrocarbon synthesis, synthetic fuel production and production of chemicals. Usually, fixed-bed or fluidized-bed reactor technologies are involved in these processes. Although as-synthesized zeolites are obtained in the form of a fine powder it might have not been used directly in such kinds of reactor technology. In addition, in cases where the process requires a fixed-bed reactor technology, the dilemma relies on the fact that powder causes very high pressure drops through the reactor and exhibits poor mechanical strength that can lead to damage of the catalyst or adsorbent, thus creating fines or dust at the reactor outlet. In fact, the presence of small particulates can lead to dramatic consequences on both the reaction and the equipment. Therefore, the zeolite has to be applied in a suitable particle size usually in the form of shaped mechanically stable macroscopic particles such as beads/spheres or extrudates/ pellets, because zeolite powder does not exhibit binding properties.