AN ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS OF TEACHING METHODS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN NAIROBI COUNTY

AN ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS OF TEACHING METHODS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN NAIROBI COUNTY (KENYA).

BY
OYORI. O. DOMINIC
REG NO: A83/4792/2015
B.SC. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION AND EXTENSION (UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI)
A proposal submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of a Degree of Bachelor of science in Agricultural education and Extension of University of Nairobi.

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Department of Agricultural Economics
Univer
TABLE OF CONTENT
CONTENT PAGE
Title page ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
Table content…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study…………………………………………………………………………………………….3,4
1.2 statement of the problem…………………………………………………………………………………………..5
1.3 objectives of the study………………………………………………………………………………………………..6
1.4 research question……………………………………………………………………………………………………….6
1.5 hypothesis………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….6
1.6 justification of the study…………………………………………………………………………………………….7
1.7 scope………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7
1.8 limitation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATUTRE REVIEW
2.1Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8
2.2 teaching methods………………………………………………………………………………………………………9
2.2.1 Teacher centered method………………………………………………………………………………………9
2.2.2 Student centered method………………………………………………………………………………………9
2.2.3 Student –teacher interactive method…………………………………………………………………….10
2.2.4 Lecture method, group discussion and demonstration method………………………………11
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………12
3.2 research design………………………………………………………………………………………………………….12
3.3 study area………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….12
3.4 population sample and size………………………………………………………………………………………13
3.5 data sources……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13
3.6 data collection tools…………………………………………………………………………………………………14
3.7 data analysis and presentation…………………………………………………………………………………15
3.8 budgeting…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………16
3.9 work plan…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………17
4.0 reference………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….18
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
The main aim of teaching at any level of education is to bring a behavior change in the learner (tebabal & kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge and skill acquisition, teaching methods should be used appropriately to suit specific objectives and good impacts. Some instructors widely apply teacher centered methods to impart knowledge and skills to student’s comparative learner centered methods. Many questions about the effectiveness of teaching on student learning have consistently raised considerable interests in the field of educational research.
It is evident that regular poor academic performance by most of the learners is mainly linked to application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to leaners (adunola, 2011). More research on the effectiveness of teaching methods shows that the quality of teaching is often reflected by achievement of students. According to Adunola (2011), for teaching to be effective, instructors need to be aware and conversant with various teaching methods and techniques that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered.

Teachers can use many teaching methods depending on preference or type of skills the leaner is expected to acquire after instruction. According to (Michael, 1987), the lecture method is probably the most popular and widely used teaching method. However, lecture method does not give students chances of asking questions (castello, 1991). Other teaching methods include; demonstration which stimulate thinking, small group discussion which gives leaners opportunities to express their opinion, role play, reading, research and writing also provides nourishment learning environment.

The choice of any teaching methods depends on the strategy and techniques used, whereas the strategy depends on the content and objectives of the lesson (Bowen J, 1985). Ineffective teaching occurs when one uses inappropriate method that results to reduced motivation, increased negative attitude to learning and result lower academic achievements (Doff, 1988). Studies on teaching methods is not something new in educational research. A large number of research have been done in this area.
Pascarella and trenzini (2005) have written a many books of research studies conducted in this area over the past decades. These show both increased interest and knowledge in the area of teaching strategies and learning theories.
The combination of demonstration and discussion methods of teaching have been widely accepted and recommended by some instructors as good methods of teaching in secondary schools (Phipps ; Osborne, 1988).
The discussion method is characterized by interaction, during discussion session students actively participate in the learning process by contributing problems, analyzing the factors associated with problem, developing the solution to the problem, placing the solution into action and evaluating the result of the solution. Demonstration method provides a link between “knowing about “and being able to do. Researcher reveals that demonstration is the most effective when they are accurate, when students are able to see clearly and understand what is going on after brief explanations are given out.

Since good teaching among other factors play significant role in enhancing performance , this study attempts to find out which method of instruction are better to facilitate learning in secondary schools in Nairobi county by beaming light on the different methods of teaching methods in secondary schools.

1.2 Statement of problem
It is now clear that sub optimal academic performance by majority of students in secondary schools has been due to ineffective teaching methods. Given the high value placed on the education system in Kenya and the nature of the subjects, the need for teaching using effective methods is indisputable. A few of the problems affecting teaching and learning in secondary schools are the meaningless of the content, the sustainability of the method and probably the teacher who handle both the content and methods. There is scarcity of published work on the use of demonstration and discussion particularly in Nairobi County where this study is carried out. The incidences of ineffective teaching of secondary schools has resulted to massive poor performance in recent examination results .this necessitated the need for more research to be carried out on classroom delivery of the content.
What a teacher does in classroom depends to some degree upon his approach to learning situations. However, student negative attitude towards learning may be related to the methods of instruction, teacher with high morale, motivation and mastery of knowledge and capacity to facilitate learning are important. Correct use of an appropriate teaching method is successful teaching and learning. For effective teaching to take place the teacher must stimulate, encourage and maintain active participation of the students, through the selection of appropriate teaching methods. This would require a balance between what is taught and how it is taught. Thus the successful teaching in vocational education does not only depend on mastery of the subject matter but also the teaching methods employed.

1.3 Objectives of the study
(i) To assess the relationship between teaching methods and academic performance of students in Nairobi county.

(ii) To examine the relationship between uses of group discussion, demonstration, case study brain storming individual presentation and lecture methods to the performance of students.

1.4 Research questions
(i) What is the relationship between teaching methods and academic performance of students in Nairobi County?
(ii) What is the relationship between the uses of various teaching methods to the academic performance of learners?
1.5 Hypothesis
There exist a significant difference between the effectiveness of different teaching methods on student academic performance.

There is no significance difference between the effectiveness of teaching method on student performance
1.6 Justification of the study
The study will help to increase teacher’s level of awareness and understanding of the use of most instructional techniques. Finding may also provide the teacher with a feedback on the teaching competence in most commonly used teaching methods as a basis for improvement in their instructional practices so that they can enhance performance.

Curriculum planners and educators as well as government and education administrators need empirical data on the overall teaching method and activity of teaching competences to facilitate proper curricular policies and programmes for effective teaching and learning.

1.7 Scope
The focus on this research is on the teaching techniques like discussion, demonstration, lecture and question approaches of teaching on secondary school student in Nairobi County. The educating level of focus is only secondary school students. It is believed that these group of students have been exposed to the knowledge, attitude and skills of the subject matter. Therefore the work covered should be reflected on the outcome.

1.8 Limitation
(i) Financial constrains – inadequate funds to facilitate the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, information and the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

(II) Time constrain- the researcher will be multitasking as he/ she will be working on the research question at the same time doing academic work this will reduce the time for gathering more information.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a continuous process that aims at bringing behavior change in the learner by use of the best teaching method. Adunola (2011) emphasized that in order to bring behavior changes in students, teaching methods used by instructors must be appropriate to the content being delivered. Furthermore, Bharadwaj & Pal (2011) sustained that teaching methods work effectively mainly if they suit learners’ needs since every learner interprets and responds to questions in a unique way (Chang, 2010). As such, alignment of teaching methods with students’ needs and preferred l earning influence students’ academic attainments.

2.2 Teaching methods
Teaching methods are classified into three major categories that is teacher centered, learner centered and student teacher interactive method.

2.2.1 Teacher-Centered Methods
In teacher centered method, learners get information from the teacher without being involved in the learning process (Boud ; Feletti, 1999). Teacher centered is less practical and more of memorization and theoretical work (Teo ; Wong, 2000). It does not involve student in practical work that enable them to solve the problems they encounter in real life. The teacher controls the whole process of delivering knowledge to the learner. The teacher maximizes the delivery of the content and also time. due to those characteristics , learners and even instructors argue that its is not the appropriate method that can enable learners acquire knowledge and skills .therefore, Zakaria, Chin ; Daud (2010) specified that teaching should not only focus on procedure , rules and definitions for student to follow and memorize but should also involve student to actively participate in the learning process.
2.2.2 Student-Centered Method
Due to the emerging of the concept of discovery learning, many educational philosophers today widely adopt more student-centered methods to enhance and increase active learning process in schools. Many instructors today apply the student centered approach to promote analytical research, interest, enjoyment among student and critical thinking (Hesson ; Shad, 2007). The teaching method is regarded more appropriate and effective since it does not centralize the flow of knowledge and skills from the teacher to the student (Lindquist, 1995).The teaching method also motivates goal-orientated behavior among students, hence the method is very effective in improving student achievement.

2.2.3 Teacher-Student Interactive Method
This teaching method applies the techniques and strategies used by both teacher-centered and student-centered method of teaching. The content information produced by the students is remembered better than the same information presented to the learners by the teacher. The method encourages the students to search for relevant knowledge rather than the teacher monopolizing the transmission of knowledge and skills to the learner to the learners. As such, this teaching method is seen as one of the appropriate methods required to be used to improve the performance of the students in schools.

Various teaching methods and brief characteristics
2.2.4 9 (a) Lecture method – this is a teacher centered method where the teacher presents the information to the learner without engagement. In this method, it is suitable for a large class, learning is through listening and writing points down, teacher must have experience and good mastery of the subject, teacher must explain all points and provide good notes the learner. Sometimes students may ask questions for clarification of points.

(b) Group discussions
Method where students are grouped and given a task to accomplish. This will enable students to share and listen to other students opinions and express their opinion. Students exchange ideas and make their own notes. This increases creativity band confidence among students. They also understand the concepts well after class.

(c) Demonstration method
This is one of the methods used by instructors to carry out various practical activities in schools, it enable students develop good psychomotor skills and manipulative skills, it also increases the level of understanding concepts and remembering information clearly to apply in real life situations.
Other teaching methods that can be incorporated include use of ICT, brainstorming, role play and case study.

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
The main aim of these chapter is to show how the process will be carried out systematically b. it will show the research design, study area, population of study and sample size , data collection method , work plan, budget and data analysis and presentation methods.

3.2 Research Design
The research design for this investigation will be an experimental study. It will include both qualitative and quantitative researcher design. Qualitative design will be used in selected schools within the sub county. This will include descriptions from the respondents. Quantitative will be used in data presentation by use of graphs, charts and tables. The independent variables will be the various teaching methods whereas the dependent variables will be student scores or mar
3.3 Study area
The study will be carried out in Nairobi County in the following sample institutions; Kangemi high school, Uthiru girl’s high school, Kabete high school and Vet lab secondary school. This sample schools will represent other institutions found within the county. This will include both private and public secondary schools that are in various levels.

3.4 Population sample and size
David Waugh (2009) defined sample size as the selected items, units or elements which the researcher conclusion will be made from. In this case the study, the Sample will be teachers teaching various subjects in selected schools, heads of subjects in selected schools academic masters, heads of schools and students in different grades in selected schools
Kothari (2008) defined a sample size as the number to be selected from the universe to constitute a sample. The sample will be derived from total population and the number of students in various forms.
3.5 Data sources
Data to be collected will be both primary and secondary data. Kothari (1990) described that primary data is data collected a fresh and for the first time and this happen to be the original character. Primary data for the research will be collected from teachers and students using questionnaire and interview methods.

Kothari (1990) also explains that secondary data is the data which is already existing. In this study, secondary data will be source from the available literature related to the study questions. This will include students learning and performance from the ministry of education and also information from those who have tackled the topic before.

In general the data for the study will be generated from students’ academic performance assessment test scores. The data will be collected from different subjects performance depending on the methods used during delivery of the content all the methods of instructions or teaching will be used in selected institutions and at the end, tests are given to evaluate the learners and come up with the most suitable methods of teaching according to test score of students.
3.6 Data collection tools
Data collection methods to be used in this research will be use of questionnaires and interviews.

(1) Questionnaire – there will be two types of questionnaires which will be given to both students and teachers to fill, they will be structured and unstructured questions. Questionnaires will be appropriate as they are more effective in that they are less costly. section A will have questions of respondents personal information and section B will have structured questions where the respondents will be expected to tick their suitable responses and an open ended question where the responded use their own words to answer the questions.

Section A will focus on the teacher and student perception on the teaching and learning methods applied in class, their interests and motivation whereas the section B will majorly focus on the teaching and methods and their effectiveness in acquisition of knowledge and skills.

(2) Interviews- seal et el (2004) defined an interview as the social encounter where the speaker collaborates in producing parts retrospective and prospective accounts in versions of their parts or future action , experience or feelings. In this study, the researcher will use unstructured form of interview due to its flexibility of questions. Both teachers and students will be interviewed to gather enough information required.

3.7 Data analysis and presentation
Once the data has been collected, the researcher will use SPSS computer package to analyze the data in form of frequency bar graphs, charts and tables. Data analysis is the process of examining band evaluating data which has been collected. This study will include qualitative and quantitative method of data analysis. Qualitative will include description of the perception of teacher and student towards the methods of teaching and their impacts.

The quantitative method of data analysis will include research examining the data in numerical and present it in graphs and tables
3.8 Budgeting
This is the estimate cost required for effective completion of researcher and report writing. The cost will include the personnel, travel and accommodation, few laboratory equipment’s and other special activities as shown in the table below.

item quantity Total cost
Personnel 5000
(i) computer operator 1 (ii) laboratory technician 1 4500
(iii) education specialist 2 12000
Traveling and accommodation
8500
Laboratory equipment’s and field books 3500
Writing materials and pens 5 650
Special activities (i) typing and printing final report
350
(ii) photocopying and printing 1 450
(iii) binding of the report 150
TOTALS Ksh. 36,000
3.9 Work plan
This shows the steps that are involved in accomplishing the research proposal the table below illustrates the procedure
ACTIVITY FEB/MARCH APRIL/MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST/ SEPT
Problem identification Proposal development Protesting the questions and actual study (collecting data) Data processing Report writing and presentation 4.0 REFERENCES
1. Adunola, O. (2011),”The Impact of Teachers’ Teaching Methods on the Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils in Ijebu-Ode Local cut Area of Ogun State,” Ego Booster Books, Ogun State, Nigeria.

2. Ayeni, A.J. (2011), “Teachers professional development and quality assurance in Nigerian Secondary Schools,” World Journal of Education, 1(2):143-149.
3. Boud, D. ; Feletti, G. (1999), “The challenge of problem-based learning,” (2nd Ed.), London, Kogan Page.

4. Chang, W. (2002), “Interactive Teaching Approach in Year One University Physics in Taiwan: Implementation and Evaluation,”Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching 3, (2002).

5. Hesson, M. ; Shad, K.F. (2007), “A student -centered learning model,” American Journal of Applied Sciences, 628-636.

6. Tebabal, A. ; Kahssay, G. (2011), “The effects of student -centered approach in improving students’ graphical interpretation skills and conceptual understanding of kinematical motion,” Lat. Am. J. Phy. Edu, 5(2): 374-381.
7. Teo, R. ; Wong, A. (2000), “Does Problem Based Learning Create A Better Student: A Reflection?,” Paper presented at the 2nd Asia Pacific Conference on Problem Based Learning: Education Across Disciplines, December 4-7, Singapore.

8. Lindquist, T. M. (1995), “Traditional versus contemporary goals and methods in accounting education: Bridging the gap with cooperative learning, “Journal of Education for Business, 70(5): 278-284.

9. Zakaria, E., Chin, C.L. ; Daud, Y. (2010), “The effect of cooperative learning on student mathematics achievements and attitude towards mathematics, Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2): 272-275.

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11 Doff, Adrian. (1988). Teaching English – A Training Course for Teachers. Cambridge,
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12 Michael J. 1987. Introduction to Descriptive Linguistic: New York, Holt