Behavioral engagement involves students’ participation in academic and social activities

Behavioral engagement involves students’ participation in academic and social activities. Positive conduct, involvement in learning, and participation in school related activities were the three main categories of behavioral engagement (Fredericks as cited on Archambault, ; Dupéré, 2016). Positive conduct includes following classroom rules. Involvement in learning and academic tasks includes student behaviors related to concentration, attention, and persistence, effort, asking questions, and contributing to class discussions. Thus, Students who are behaviorally engaged would typically comply with behavioral standards, such as attendance and involvement, and would demonstrate the absence of disruptive or negative behavior.
Emotional engagement. Emotional engagement includes students’ attitudes, interests, and values mainly related to positive or negative connections with faculty, staff, students, academics, or the institution. Three main components comprise students’ affective reactions, emotional reactions, and school identification. Affective reactions in the classroom include student interest, boredom, anxiety, sadness, and happiness. Emotional reactions are positive or negative feelings toward the institution and instructors. Meanwhile, school identification pertains to students’ feelings of belonging and importance within the institutional environment. Therefore, emotionally engaged students would experience affective responses such as interest, enjoyment, or a sense of belonging.