Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In the Philippines

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In the Philippines, the 3R programs and activities of reduce, reuse, recycle had been implemented since then. According to Antonio (2009), a Filipino can bring about 0.3 – 0.7 kilograms of garbage daily. In Metro Manila alone, more than fifty percent of waste collected is biodegradable and forty percent is recyclable. One of the components of the 3R program is recycle that can help in reducing this waste and turn it into something useful and supports to protect the environment. United States Environmental Agency in 2016 defines recycling as a process of prompting used material substances, so that it can be used to produce another product.

In the study conducted by Pantea, Darmstadt, Kaliaguine, and Roy (2003), carbon black, made of particles with a nearly round shape, have been typically used in the factory of inks and paints to use in printed electronic applications (Tehrani, et. al., 2015).

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Priya and Selvan (2014) stated that, Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes) that belongs to the family Pontederiaceae, is a challenging and most productive invasive aquatic plant on earth that shows extreme risk to the environment. It was originated in the American tropics and propagated to all tropical climate countries. Because of its fast growth and reproduction, it affects water flows, blocks sunlight and suffers the water from lack of oxygen and it also usually kills fish and serves as the prime habitat for mosquitoes.
According to Lubovich (2009), water hyacinth seeds have a very long inactivity period that takes 15 – 20 years, growing rapidly, and spreading quickly.

In 2005, Perna, and Burrows has argued that the water hyacinth mostly covers the water bodies; it hinders the penetration of the sun’s rays that reduces the gaseous exchanges, and its photosynthesis activity. Water hyacinth has been identified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as one of the 100 most aggressive invasive species (Tèllez et. al. 2008) and recognized as one of the top 10 worst weeds in the world (Shanab et. al. 2010, Gichuki et. al. 2012, Patel 2012).

In the study conducted by Maulion, Hiwatig, Rendon, and Torrano (2015), according to DENR, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, due to high volume of water hyacinth in the river, it is considered as “pest”. This was due to its high productivity of around 200 metric tons of dry matter per 10000 square meter land area under normal condition.
Water hyacinth is challenging the ecological stability of freshwater water bodies by out-competing all other species growing in the vicinity, posing a threat to aquatic biodiversity. The floating mats may limit access to breeding, nursery and feeding grounds for some economically important fish species locations. However, when water hyacinth is used for bio-fuel and art work production, this is perhaps the best method to both control and harvests them. Water hyacinth fulfills all the criteria deemed necessary for bioenergy production – it is perennial, abundantly available, non-crop plant, biodegradable and has high cellulose content (Onyango ; Ondeng, 2015). The biomass can be subjected to biogas production to generate energy for household uses in rural areas (Chuang et al. 2011). Experiments in China show that mixing biomass of water hyacinth with pig manure leads to a much higher biogas production than by using pig manure alone (Lu et al. 2010).

According to Jafari (2010), it has been verified to be an important economic and ecological hindrance to many countries in the world. Water hyacinth is recorded as part of the highest producing plants, and presents logistic growth as does another unsinkable aquatic weed.

Based on the study conducted by Eniola, Olawale, and Ajibola (2012), the rising prices of kerosene and cooking gas, and the dropping of the population of the fuel wood in Kenya, caught an attention in creating a new alternative source energy that can be used in the country. Energy sources should be sustainable, and should be handy to the poor.

Jafari (2010) reported the developing of an applicable technology for the briquetting of the water hyacinth was introduced to make a way with the quickly spreading of water hyacinth in Kenya that is commonly found in the Lake Victoria.

In the Philippines, a company supplies local restaurants with briquettes (Laguador et al. 2013). Based on the study of Contreras and Buchwald (2017), water hyacinth can be used to produce ethanol, methane and sludge. The ethanol is produced by hydrolyze and fermentation of water hyacinth.

Udonne (2011) stated that, lubricating oil helps to protect rubbing surfaces and easily connect parts when used in service. Dirt and metal parts that came from the surfaces are being stored into lubricating oils.

According to Shakirullah, Ahmad, Saeed et al., large quantity of used engine oils from different sources is disposed as a harmful waste into the environment. Most of the time, after using engine oils it will be discarded and be considered as waste. Disposal of used engine oil does not only contaminate the bodies of water but also harmful to the fresh water, aquatic, and marine life.

Back in 1930s, Udonne (2011) stated that, in the Second World War due to shortage of crude oil they began to recycle used lubricant until it became a practice up to this day.

Ogbeide (2010) said that, used oil is black in color because of the decomposition of carbon.

Boughton, and Horvath in 2004, stated that more than 1 billion gal of used oil yielded in the U.S. every year are treated in three direct ways: re-refined into base for reuse, distilled into marine diesel oil fuel, and marketed as untreated fuel oil.

Pollution can damage the environment slowly. Recycling is one way to prevent this environmental problem. Whiteboard marker uses erasable ink that is lubricious and thick in order to use it for temporary writing. Recycling used engine oil and water hyacinth charcoal can be turned into an alternative whiteboard marker ink.

Conceptual Framework
5080011430002200910114300043857331185300-59055422449Water Hyacinth
Used Engine Oil
Alcohol
Acetone
Carnauba Wax
Sap of Star Apple (Kaimito)
Clear Container
Empty white board marker
00Water Hyacinth
Used Engine Oil
Alcohol
Acetone
Carnauba Wax
Sap of Star Apple (Kaimito)
Clear Container
Empty white board marker
223710583185Process
00Process
238760016256000442722076200Output
00Output
9588585725Input
00Input

224726560537Process in making charcoal:
Collecting
Sun-drying
Burning
00Process in making charcoal:
Collecting
Sun-drying
Burning

2242185440902Process in making white board marker ink:
Pounding
Mixing
Refilling
00Process in making white board marker ink:
Pounding
Mixing
Refilling

4391660121708Whiteboard Marker Ink made from Water Hyacinth Charcoal and Used Engine Oil
00Whiteboard Marker Ink made from Water Hyacinth Charcoal and Used Engine Oil
1782445434340395246142545000
2106930301837Testing
Observation
Survey
00Testing
Observation
Survey

-60896530057Questionnaire
00Questionnaire

Figure 1. Paradigm of the Study
Figure 1 shows the Input, Process and Output of the study. The input shows the materials to be used in making the alternative white board marker ink, and the questionnaire that will be used for the survey. While in the process shows the procedure in making the charcoal and alternative white board marker ink, and it will undergo testing, observation and will be evaluated by the respondents through survey. that can lead into the output which is the finished product.
Statement of the Problem
Whiteboard markers are commonly used in schools and offices. The high cost of whiteboard marker ink and the reality that water hyacinth in the Philippines pollutes rivers because of their unending growth and used engine oil that are discarded indiscriminately led the researchers to produce a less expensive ink making use of materials that contributes to pollution.
In order to promote recycling, this study will make use of charcoal made from water hyacinth and used engine oil. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:
How may the alternative whiteboard marker ink be described in terms of:
Application,
Upon application,
After 5-minute of application?
Clarity of the strokes?
Erasability?
What is the overall acceptability of the alternative whiteboard marker ink in terms of shelf life?
Significance of the Study
This study will contribute to lessen environmental pollution by means of recycling water hyacinth charcoal and used engine oil. It will also benefit the following: the teachers that use whiteboard marker as a writing aid, through this study they can have an alternative whiteboard marker ink; the students, since this study will provide information about widening their ideas in recycling to make new product; the vulcanizing shop owners, instead of dumping used engine oil that can contribute in polluting the environment. This study provides an idea on how to recycle used engine oil efficiently that can help the teachers who use whiteboard markers and the ink industry, because this study promotes the importance of finding alternatives in making whiteboard marker ink.

Scope and Limitations
This study focuses on water hyacinth charcoal and used engine oil as an alternative whiteboard marker ink. The data gathering will be conducted by doing a survey. The researchers will give the Senior High School teachers in one of the schools in Pampanga a whiteboard ink made from water hyacinth charcoal and used engine oil, to be used in their discussions. Then the researchers, will survey the respondents by letting them answer questionnaires to determine its feasibility.

Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined conceptually and operationally:
Recycling. Is a process of prompting used material substances, so that it can be used to produce another product (United States Environmental Agency, 2016). Used Engine Oil. Helps to protect rubbing surfaces and easily connect parts when used in service (Udonne, 2011).

In this study, used engine oil defined as recycled oil that serves as the pigment of the whiteboard marker ink.

Water Hyacinth Charcoal. Produced at low cost and made conveniently accessible to firewood and charcoal for domestic cooking and agro-industrial operations (Wamukonya ; Jenkins, 1995).

In this study, water hyacinth charcoal defined as the main source of color for the darkness of the alternative whiteboard marker ink.
.