CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Breast Cancer Breast cancer is cancer that forms in tissues of the breast

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is cancer that forms in tissues of the breast. According to www.cancer.org the most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which begins in the lining of the milk ducts (thin tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple). Another type of breast cancer is lobular carcinoma, which begins in the lobules (milk glands) of the breast. Invasive breast cancer is breast cancer that has spread from where it began in the breast ducts or lobules to surrounding normal tissue. Breast cancer occurs in both men and women, although male breast cancer is rare. And based on what I’ve read, breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is malignant (cancer) if the cells can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasis) to distant areas of the body. (But based on www.nationalbreastcancer.org no actual tumor is found in the breast. The tumor is smaller than the approximate size of peanut.) And also the breast cancer starts from different parts of the body.
Most of the common breast cancers are found on screening mammograms that can detect cancers at an earlier stage, often before they can be felt, and before symptoms develop. It can spread when the cancer cells get into the blood and carried to the other parts of the body. Healthy cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them, and die if they are damage or old. In cancerous cells, abnormal changes in the genes responsible for cell growth cause them to divide out of control. The malignant cells may form into tumors or group of cancer cells. It can travel either short distances or longer ones to the different parts of the body.

Doctors know that breast cancer occurs when some breast cells begin to grow abnormally. To plan treatment, doctors need to learn about the makeup of the breast cancer. This process begins with a biopsy, when a doctor removes a small amount of the breast tissue. There are a number of treatments available for breast cancer. These include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy and targeted (biological) therapy. The treatment is depends in order of which stage of breast cancer that patient have.

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Women with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop breast cancer. Risk factor that is something may increase the chance of getting a disease. Some risk factors (such drinking alcohol) can be avoided. But most risk factors (such as having a family history of breast cancer) can’t be avoided. According to the most scientific studies, they found that stress does not increase the risk of breast cancer. Some individual studies have suggested that stress can cause cancer, particularly breast cancer. But overall evidence for this has been poor. This evidence tells us that stress itself doesn’t cause cancer. (2018) Base on the internet, breast cancers have warning signs: lump, hard knot or thickening, swelling, warmth, redness or darkening.

Mammogram
According to the www.medicine.net.com mammogram is an x-ray of the breast that is taken with a device that compresses and flattens the breast. A mammogram can help health professional decide whether a lump in the breast is a gland, a harmless cyst or a tumor. While screening mammograms are routinely administrated to detect breast cancer in woman who have no apparent symptoms, diagnostic mammograms are used after suspicious result on a screening mammogram or after some signs of breast cancer alert the physician to check the tissue. Mammogram can cause pressure, discomfort, and some soreness that lasts a little while after the procedure. If the mammogram result raise suspicious about cancer, biopsy is the next step. The American Cancer Society and the American Surgeons currently recommended that a woman obtain her first, baseline, mammogram between the ages of 35 and 40.
According to the American Cancer society, mammograms are still the best screening test available for breast cancer. And according to the FDA (Food And Drug Administration), there is currently no support for thermography to be adapted as an alternative to traditional mammography, which is still the most accurate method of breast cancer detection. (2017)
Breast compression while getting a mammogram cannot cause cancer to spread. According to the National Cancer Institute, the benefits of mammography, however nearly always outweigh the potential harm from the radiation exposure. Mammograms require every small doses of radiation. Although mammography is the most effective breast cancer screening tool for most women today, it’s not perfect. Mammography misses about 13 percent of breast cancers. Among the 60 percent of women with breast cancer who detected the disease by screening, only 3 percent to 13 percent of them were actually helped by the test.
If the mammograms show something abnormal, check whether or not the finding is breast cancer. Most abnormal findings on a mammogram are not breast cancer. A benign breast condition, the breast tissue is normal.
Benign Tumor
According to the www.wikipedia.com a benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize. These do not spread into, or invade, nearby tissues; however, they can sometimes be quite large. When removed, benign tumors usually do not grow back, whereas malignant tumors sometimes do. Based on what I’ve read, benign refers to a condition, tumor, or growth that is not cancerous. Sometimes this condition is not dangerous or serious. Benign describes anything that is not cancer, and is not malignant. Benign tumors do not have the ability to travel to distant regions of the body, though they may grow to be quite large.