SOC 428 FAMILY AND KINSHIP
WITH RELEVENT EXAMPLS, ILLUSTRATE HOW PARTRIACHY WORKS IN THE GENDER DIVISION OF LABOUR IN THE FAMILY
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominantly in roles of leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property. Fathers or father figures hold authority over woman and children and some patriarchal societies are also patrilineal meaning that property are entitled and inherited by male lineage.
Gender inequality involves economic and psychosocial consequences for women. The limitations of house care and child care influences the kind of job a women is likely to work in the hours and pay they receive (Calasanti & Bailey, 1991). According to the relative resources approach, domestic labour is allocated based on the power of each spouse (Ross, 1987). This approach assumes that the spouse with the most power will partake in fewer unpleasant tasks; childcare and housework are assumed to be among these (Seccombe 1986). The approach also assumes that tasks are allocated on the basis of gender roles learned through socialization that it is the duty of women to do household chores as ascribed by society.
The existence of patriarchy still poses a challenge to women when it comes to caring for the family. Home responsibilities are still left to women and less men avail themselves to helping women at homes. Women are still segregated into low paying jobs (Sidel, 1986). Some men believe that they may be viewed negatively if they actively participate in home duties which are culturally defined duties for women.
With more women likely to be employed, the sexual division of labour is reappearing in the labour market where women work women’s jobs often jobs that are low status and are low paying and there are shifting from a family based to an industrial based form of patriarchy (Hartmann, 1981). There are only a few paid occupation that are dominated by females as women’s work is said to be at the home.
Research shows that the most important factor affect working couples is the division of labour but however it is something that is taken much into account as not only is there a need for division of house hold chores but also parental duties such as child care taking. Research indicates that even among couples in which spouses work an equal number of hours, women typically perform two to three times more of the daily, repetitive, and necessary household labor than men (Bianchi et al, 2000).
The workload of men and woman may become more demanding as the couple enter into parenthood. A few studies have looked at changes in the division of labour across the transition to parenthood among employed mothers and they found out that the division of labour tends to become more traditional across the transition to parenthood in dual-earner households and therefore women are burdened with more household responsibilities than men and also increases if they have a child even if they work the same hours (Gjerdingen & Chaloner, 1994).
According to theorist Eli Zaretsky states that during industrialization, the home and workplace become separate. More importance is placed on the workplace rather than on the family and therefore giving room for capitalism to breed as women get exploited for labour. The capitalist system aims to maximize its profit by exploiting workers and giving them less pay for their labour. Women are the more victims of the system as they are placed in low paying and low status jobs as compared to men though they are natures of the production system of birthing and taking care of future labour force. The family is also an important unit of consumption as they buy and use goods and services also provided by the capitalists.
In conclusion patriarchy is still a major concern in many societies as it is still the basis of how division of labour among societies should look like. Despite industrialization and developments taking place division of labour is still a least explored area amongst working couples in a family. Most societies believe that the job of a women is at home and not in the labour market and therefore leads to women getting exploited at the workplaces and working in positions that are of low status and low paying and still have to take care of the family. Until the cultural roles of women are uplifted from being the primary care giver and enable equal shared responsibilities, women will continue to be oppressed by the patriarchal nature.
Calasanti T. M & Bailey C. A, 1991. Gender Inequality and the Division of Household Labor in the United States and Sweden: A Socialist-Feminist Approach Source: Social Problems; 38 (1) 34-53
Ross, C. E 1987. The Division of Labor at Home. Social Forces 65:816-833.
Seccombe, K 1986. The Effects of Occupational Conditions upon the Division of Household Labour: An Application of Kohn’s Theory. Journal of Marriage and the Family
Hartmann, H 1981.The unhappy marriage of Marxism and feminism: Towards a more progressive union. In Women and revolution: A discussion of the unhappy marriage of Marxism and Feminism
Gjerdingen D. K, Chaloner K 1994. Mothers’ experiences with household roles and social support during the first postpartum year. Women and Health; 21(4):57–74
Bianchi, S. M., Melissa A. M., Liana C. S & John P. R, 2000. Is anyone doing the housework? Trends in the gender division of household labour .Social Forces79 (1): 191-228.
Sidel, R 1986. Women and Children Last: The Plight of Poor Women in Affluent America.