Chemistry Research Investigation Report By Victoria Scholten Claim

Chemistry Research Investigation Report
By Victoria Scholten
Claim:
Radiotherapy is the most effective medical treatment of cancer.
Research question:
Do the benefits of utilizing radiotherapy to reduce cancerous cells throughout the body outweigh the negatives, considering all potential advantages and disadvantages?
The claim, “Radiotherapy is the most effective medical treatment of cancer”, has several aspects that could be investigated. The first aspect of the claim is the term ‘radiotherapy’. Radiotherapy is a treatment using radiation through x-rays or other ionizing radiation and by ingestion of radioisotopes, to kill cancer cells CITATION The14 l 3081 (The Free Dictionary, 2014). Another aspect of the claim is the statement that radiotherapy is ‘the most effective’ medical treatment of cancer. The term ‘effective’ in this case means whether it assists in reducing cancerous cells, with the least amount of side effects possible. The final aspect of the claim is the word ‘cancer’, which refers to any type of cancer. Cancer is any disease where something causes an error in the cells genetic blueprints, therefore cancer is the term used to describe the discerning amount of these cells spreading throughout the body CITATION Wha16 l 3081 (What is cancer, 2016). Subsequently, this has led to the research question of, ‘Do the benefits of utilizing radiotherapy to reduce cancerous cells throughout the body outweigh the negatives, considering all potential advantages and disadvantages?’
To begin, there are various benefits of choosing radiotherapy to assist in treating cancer. Radiotherapy is very effective in reducing these cancerous cells through the ingestion of radioisotopes and radiation through x-rays and other ionizing radiation methods CITATION The14 l 3081 (The Free Dictionary, 2014). There is an extensive array of radioisotopes utilized throughout the treatment and diagnosis of cancer. Two main isotopes used throughout medicine include iodine -131 and samarium -153, which both assist in the elimination of cancerous cells through radiation CITATION Rad l 3081 (Radioisotopes, n.d.). Radioisotopes contain an imbalance of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. Atoms containing an imbalance of protons and neutrons regain stability by emitting radioactive energy CITATION Wha l 3081 (What are radioisotopes, n.d.). These isotopes specifically target areas that are infected by cancerous cells, rather than other areas of the body that do not require medical attention. This is extremely effective as by doing this, they do not spread to other areas which could potentially be damaged by the radiation. Cancerous cells absorb the radioactive substance more than regular cells. Therefore, they receive a far higher dose of radiation causing the cells to die CITATION Rad l 3081 (Radioisotopes, n.d.).

Furthermore, there are many additional personal benefits to cancer patients through the use of radiotherapy. When being treated, sessions only take approximately twenty minutes and do not usually require patients to stay in the hospital CITATION Wha17 l 3081 (What are the advantages and disadvantages of radiotherapy, 2017). In addition to short treatment sessions, they are also relatively safe, painless and generally do not require additional medication such as anaesthesia CITATION Heb16 l 3081 (Soffar, 2016). This is extremely beneficial as for many other treatments of cancer, patients are required to stay in hospital and endure long and painful treatments. Moreover, radiotherapy is utilized for many important reasons including to cure cancer, control spreading of infection, assist other treatments and relieve painful symptoms CITATION Rad18 l 3081 (Radiotherapy, 2018). The radiation emitted from radioisotopes causes the death of the microscopic disease at the periphery of the tumour, aswell as being able to shrink the tumours to help relieve the mass effect CITATION Heb16 l 3081 (Soffar, 2016). Ultimately, radiotherapy is the stimulation of an immune response against the growing tumour in the body, therefore utilizing radioisotopes to eliminate the cancer cells.
Conversely, there are few minor disadvantages with using radiotherapy to treat cancerous cells. The main disadvantage is the many side effects that occur throughout treatment, both acute and chronic. The most common acute side effects include skin irritation, fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite and temporary hair loss in the area being treated. The side effects vary depending on which part of the body is being treated, and many of these can be prevented and will cure themselves after the treatment has concluded CITATION Rad17 l 3081 (Radiotherapy side effects, 2017). Another disadvantage of radiotherapy through the use of radioisotopes is that if the infected area has poor oxygen supply. This is due to low oxygen supply initiating an increase in incidence in the wound complication, therefore making it significantly more difficult to kill the cancer cells CITATION Heb16 l 3081 (Soffar, 2016). If being treated near the patients reproductive organs, receiving radiation therapy can immensely affect your fertility either temporarily or permanently. This is followed by the disadvantage of not being able to use radiation therapy if you are pregnant or wanting to get their partners pregnant CITATION Rad18 l 3081 (Radiotherapy, 2018). This is as radiation can have a strong impact on the development of the baby, and the men’s sperm cells.
In conclusion, the use of radiotherapy alongside the assistance of radioisotopes has both many advantages and disadvantages. Evidently, through the research utilizing many reliable sources, it is evident that the benefits of using radiotherapy most certainly outweigh the negatives. Through research, it was discovered that many sources did not have the author listed hence leading to uncertainty. But majority of those sources corroborated with one another and stated the same information, which made the data collected far more reliable. An improvement that could be applied to the research task is that the research question would not be a closed question. Utilising a closed question limits the amount of research investigated as the statement can only be either agreed or disagreed with. For example still associating with the current claim, the research question could be changed to, ‘are there more benefits of using radiotherapy than benefits of using chemotherapy, and which advantages do both treatments have in common?’
Reference list:
https://www.thefreedictionary.com/radiotherapy CITATION The14 l 3081 (The Free Dictionary, 2014)
https://www.cancer.org.au/about-cancer/what-is-cancer/ CITATION Wha16 l 3081 (What is cancer, 2016)https://www.macmillan.org.uk/information-and-support/treating/radiotherapy/internal-radiotherapy-explained/radioisotopes.html CITATION Rad l 3081 (Radioisotopes, n.d.)
http://www.ansto.gov.au/NuclearFacts/AboutNuclearScience/Radioisotopes/ CITATION Wha l 3081 (What are radioisotopes, n.d.)
https://www.pancreaticcancer.org.uk/information-and-support/treatments-for-pancreatic-cancer/radiotherapy-for-pancreatic-cancer/what-are-the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-radiotherapy/ CITATION Wha17 l 3081 (What are the advantages and disadvantages of radiotherapy, 2017).

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

https://www.online-sciences.com/health/cancer-and-radiation-therapy-advantages-disadvantages/ CITATION Heb16 l 3081 (Soffar, 2016)
https://www.cancer.org.au/about-cancer/treatment/radiotherapy.html CITATION Rad18 l 3081 (Radiotherapy, 2018)https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/radiotherapy/side-effects/ CITATION Rad17 l 3081 (Radiotherapy side effects, 2017)Retrieval charts:
Retrieval Chart (1)

Research Question Do the benefits of utilizing radiotherapy to reduce cancerous cells throughout the body outweigh the negatives, considering all potential advantages and disadvantages?
Source
(Full Reference) URL: https://www.online-sciences.com/health/cancer-and-radiation-therapy-advantages-disadvantages/
Citation: CITATION Heb16 l 3081 (Soffar, 2016)
Is it Valid? Is it Reliable?
Does the information link to your Research Question?
The information provided by this website most definitely links to the research question. ‘advantages’ and ‘disadvantages’ What is the type of source?
The source is an informative text.
253339612966700
Website URL (circle one) .edu .gov .net .com .org
What is the Date of Publication?
This web page was published on the 4th of February, 2016. Who are the Authors ; their Credentials?
The author of this source is Heba Soffar. She is a Telecommunication Engineer at Alexandria University.
Does it use primary or secondary evidence?
The source most likely uses secondary evidence as the author is a Telecommunication Engineer, therefore would not find out all this information primarily. Does it have links to other Websites?
This source does not have links to any other websites.

Who is the intended audience?
The intended audience is anybody interested in the advantages and disadvantages of radiotherapy, as the source provides in depth detail on this topic. Does this source corroborate/refute any other source you have located?
This source corroborates with many other sources that state the advantages and disadvantages of radiotherapy, used throughout the research report.
Overall Evaluation
Overall, this source written by Heba Soffar on the 4th of February, 2016 is extremely reliable as it is written and published by a credible author. In addition this source also corroborates with many other sources, which again increases its reliability.
Key Ideas (topics): Extra Details (notes copied from source):
Radiation therapy advantages
Radiation therapy disadvantages
What is cancer?
Death of large proportion of cancer cells
Used alone to cure small tumours
Causes death of the microscopic disease at the periphery of the tumour
Causes relative safety for the patient
It is a painless treatment
Takes approximately 20 minutes and you do not need to stay in hospital
Summary:
In summary, this source is very reliable and is the most reliable source used throughout this report, as it is the only source that states the author aswell as exact date it was published.
Retrieval Chart (2)

Research Question Do the benefits of utilizing radiotherapy to reduce cancerous cells throughout the body outweigh the negatives, considering all potential advantages and disadvantages?
Source
(Full Reference) URL: https://www.cancer.org.au/about-cancer/what-is-cancer/Citation: CITATION Wha16 l 3081 (What is cancer, 2016)Is it Valid? Is it Reliable?
Does the information link to your Research Question?
The information provided on this website links to my research question as it defines cancer and discusses radiotherapy. What is the type of source?
This source is a written informative text
289722011938000
Website URL (circle one) .edu .gov .net .com .org
What is the Date of Publication?
This source was published on the 11th of January, 2018. Who are the Authors ; their Credentials?
The authors of this source are not mentioned on the webpage.

Does it use primary or secondary evidence?
This source uses both primary and secondary evidence.

Does it have links to other Website?
This source includes links to other webpages that are still apart of the same website but just about related topics.

Who is the intended audience?
The intended audience is anybody willing to extend their knowledge on radiotherapy.
Does this source corroborate/refute any other source you have located?
This source corroborates to many other sources researched.
Overall Evaluation
Overall, the source was written on the 11th of January, 2018 by an unknown author. The source is reliable as it corroborates to many other sources throughout the research report.

Key Ideas (topics): Extra Details (notes copied from source):
Radiotherapy
What is radiotherapy used for
When is radiotherapy used
Why if radiotherapy given
How is radiotherapy given
Where with treatment take place
How long is a course of treatment
Does radiation therapy hurt
What are side effects of radiation therapy
How long will side effects last
How will I know the treatment has worked
Will radiation therapy affect my fertility
Can I have radiotherapy if I’m pregnant
Will I be able to work during radiotherapy
Will I be radioactive
Which health professionals will I see
Having radiation therapy in areas near your reproductive organs can affect your fertility temporarily or permanently.

If you are pregnant, you will probably not be able to have radiotherapy, as radiation can harm a developing baby.

In time, most side effects go away. However, some may be permanent and others may not appear until after treatment has finished.

Side effects:
fatigue (tiredness)
dry, red or itchy skin
loss of appetite
nausea (feeling sick)
digestive problems
hair loss
dry or sore throat or mouth
cough or shortness of breath.

Summary:
In summary, this source is very reliable and is one of the most reliable sources used in this report. The website is very credible, it contains the exact date it was published but the only issue is that the author is not mentioned.

Retrieval Chart (3)

Research Question Do the benefits of utilizing radiotherapy to reduce cancerous cells throughout the body outweigh the negatives, considering all potential advantages and disadvantages?
Source
(Full Reference) URL: http://www.ansto.gov.au/NuclearFacts/AboutNuclearScience/Radioisotopes/
Citation: CITATION Wha l 3081 (What are radioisotopes, n.d.)Is it Valid? Is it Reliable?
Does the information link to your Research Question?
Yes the information provided does link to the research question as it discusses radioactive decay. What is the type of source?
This source is an informative text.

185142116139700
Website URL (circle one) .edu .gov .net .com .org
What is the Date of Publication?
This source does not state when it was published. Who are the Authors & their Credentials?
The authors are not stated in this source.
Does it use primary or secondary evidence?
This source uses primary evidence.

Does it have links to other Website?
This source consists of inner website links to other related topics.
Who is the intended audience?
The audience is Australians whom are interested in nuclear science. Does this source corroborate/refute any other source you have located?
This source corroborates with other sourced used throughout this report.
Overall Evaluation
Overall, this source is credible as the website is, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation therefore is highly reliable. Despite not stating the date of publication nor the author this source is still highly credible.

Key Ideas (topics): Extra Details (notes copied from source):
what are radioisotopes
how do radioisotopes occur
radioactive decay
how are radioisotopes used
what is a radioactive source
radioisotopes in medicine
‘Radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of an element. Different isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei but differing numbers of neutrons. They can also be defined as atoms that contain an unstable combination of neutrons and protons.’
Summary:
In summary, despite not including a date of publication nor an author this source is till extremely credible as the website is very trustworthy.