COLLEGE OF LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE INSTITUTE OF LEADERSHIP AND GOOD GOVERNANCE The Challenges of Good Governance in Selected Public Sector

COLLEGE OF LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE
INSTITUTE OF LEADERSHIP AND GOOD GOVERNANCE

The Challenges of Good Governance in Selected Public Sector: In Case of Shabe Sombo Woreda Jimma Zone Oromia Regional State Ethiopia

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By
Ashireka Aba Diga
ECSU1600728

Advisor: Prof. Krishna Shekhar

A Thesis Submitted to the Institute of Leadership and Good Governance Masters Program, Ethiopian Civil Service University, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Institute of Leadership and Good Governance

May, 2018
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Abstract
By understood its desperate significance and the countless efforts of the government in ensuing good governance this study stands to assess governance in public institutions making its topic of the challenges of good governance in public institutions.’ The main objective of the study is assessing thechallenges of good governance in selected public sector and the research was conducted on 10 public sectors which were purposefully selected. In Shabe Sombo woreda selected public office. The study employed qualitative and quantitative research methodology and data was collected through questionnaire method and the data obtained both from the leaders of the sectors public institution employees and service users together with the information obtained through interview fromleaders of the sectors. The descriptive analysis made exposed that institutions are on the way striving to achieve governance practically in their institutions. Based on the analysis conducted using five core elements of good governance namely accountability, transparency, equity and equality, effectiveness and efficiency and participation different successes and failures were observed. The necessity of engaging the society in full scale participation, the need for trainings, workshop, seminars, on good governance, increasing implementing capacity of the institutions, the necessity of using different mass medias including the regional mass medias for good governance issues.

Table of Contents
Abstract i
CHAPTER ONE 2-1
2 INTRODUCTION 2-1
2.1 General background of the study 2-1
2.2 Statement of the problem 2-4
2.3 Objectives 2-6
General objective 2-7
Specific objectives 2-7
2.4 Research Questions 2-7
2.5 Significance of the study 2-7
2.6 Scope of the study 2-8
2.7 Limitation of the study 2-8
2.8 Operational definitions of key terms 2-9
CHAPTER- TWO 2-11
3 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 3-11
3.1 Theoretical framework of the study 3-11
3.1.1 Governance and Government 3-11
3.1.2 Concept of Good Governance 3-12
3.1.3 Concept of Development 3-14
3.1.4 Good governance assessment models 3-14
3.1.5 Relationship between People’s Participation and Good Governance 3-16
3.1.6 Models of Good Governance on the Basis of Participation Levels 3-17
3.1.7 Core elements of good governance 3-21
3.2 Conceptual frame work of the study 3-24
CHAPTER- THREE 3-26
4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES 4-26
4.1 Introduction 4-26
4.2 Description of the study Area 4-26
Research design 4-26
4.3 Research Approach 4-27
4.4 Population and Sampling Techniques 4-27
4.4.1 Target Population 4-28
4.4.2 Sample Frame 4-28
4.4.3 Sample unit 4-28
4.4.4 Sample Size 4-29
4.4.5 Sampling technique 4-31
4.4.6 Sampling design 33
4.4.7 Data collection techniques 33
Primary data sources 33
Secondary data source 34
4.4.8 Data collection instrument 34
4.4.9 Method of Data Analysis 34
4.5 Ethical Consideration 35
CHAPTER FOUR 36
5 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 36
5.1 Introduction 36
5.2 Response Rate 36
5.3 Validity & Reliability of the Instrument 36
5.4 Demographic Profile of the Respondents 37
5.4.1 Gender of Respondents 37
5.4.2 Age of Respondents 37
5.4.3 Work Experience of Respondents 38
5.4.4 Educational Status 38
5.4.5 Marital status of the respondents 38
5.5 Challenges in implementation of Good Governance 39
5.5.1 Factors influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance 39
21 Mar 2018 Editorial-View-Point) 41
5.5.2 Challenges facing the leaders in insuring good governance. 41
5.6 Practices of the core elements of Good Governance 43
5.6.1 Accountability 43
5.6.2 Participation 45
5.6.3 Effectiveness and Efficiency 47
5.6.4 Equity and Equality 48
5.6.5 Transparency 49
5.7 Opportunities to improve effective Good Governance 50
6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 52
6.1 Summary of the major findings 52
6.2 CONCLUSION 54
6.3 RECOMMONDATION 55

Above all would like to praise to praise Allah, who enabled me to succeed in my work. .Next to Allah I am very much grateful

CHAPTER ONE
1 INTRODUCTION
Good governance is said to be the basis of development in any democratic form of
government. The study of sector governance is very important to ensure Good governance in the woreda. Good governance was one of the best elements of the democracy in any country .This study was concerned on the challenges of good governance in shabe sombo selected sector .In this Chapter the general background, statement of the problems, the research questions, objective of the study, significance of the study, the scope of the study, and limitation of the study .
1.1 General background of the study
Good governance related to leadership management and organization, which is leading of
economy on how to coordinate and mobilize the public at large the private sector and
nongovernmental organization for faster and continued growth. This is done using
increasing efficiency and manufacture of different sectors such aseducationhealth farming, mining, and mobilization of local activities and the others too. Proper application of Good
governance get better the quality of life of citizen, enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of
administration, create the legality and sincerity of institutions, secure freedom of
information and expression, provide citizen-friendly and citizen-caring administration.
Furthermore, it ensure accountability, using information and technology based service to
improve citizen government interface, improve the productivity of employs; and promote
organizational pluralism-state, market and civil society organization for governance. Good
governance includes capacity to formulate and implement sound policies by the government with due respect for citizens. From this framework, governance can be construed as consisting of six different elements. These are (1) Voice and accountability, which include civil liberties and freedom of the press, (2) Political stability, (3) Government effectiveness, which includes the
quality of policymaking and public service delivery (4) Quality of regulation, (5) Rule of law,
which includes protection of poverty rights and an independent judiciary, and (6)Control of
corruption Governance is the processes of decision making and implementing it. (Mercy Corps

Colombia, 2010) Now a day the issue of governance is questioned everywhere at public sector service delivery as well as private sector service delivery. According the implementation of governance it is classified as good governance and bad governance. (Mercy Corps. Colombia, 2010)
In a democratic government, government holds its power by election. Citizens elected their government by measuring the importance of its public policy whether it is appropriate to serve them or not. Good governance is the processes of decision making to implement governmental policies effectively and efficiently. The democratic government must insure that the principles of good governance such as rule of law, responsiveness, equity and inclusiveness, effectiveness and efficiency, transparency, accountability, participation. If, those of good governance principles violated bad governance was happen. (IFAD, September 1999)
The Horne of Africa was part of the continent which was in civil war for long period of time.
For long period of time the governments of those nations cannot ensure good governance. Some of the nations like Somalia were lived without government for the last two decades. Even though the nations try to create peaceful nation the neighboring countries support were limited. Sometimesthe neighboring nations are interfere weak nations due to their warier behavior. Because of this reason the region is still in sever poor condition now a day.
Ethiopia is one of the horns of Africa nation. And the nations pass several histories to get good government. For the last 25 years the EPRDF government secured the Peace of the nation. Besides the Peace kipping of the nation the country helps her neighboring countries for their Peace and this is unusual action through the history of the region. The country is also in great progress in developing Democracy and development. The nation develops different strategies to insure good governance. The implementation of good governance shows seems good result.
As the main development agenda of Ethiopian poverty eradication all development policies and strategies are there for geared towards this end effective implementation of this policies and
strategies are integrated and comprehensive manner of varies level of government
administration. It needs good governance, which is strategic direction of domestic governance in the country are to adopt infancy and enforces lows that support democracy and good governance conducts free fair and democratic election, ensure the human right of all citizens. To bring all economic and political development community had to respecting construction and democratic values. These forces government to give guarantee for the people are well-respected
consolidation accountability and financial system. Good governance plays key role in realizing
governments objectives eradicating poverty specially food shortage problem in short term,
backwardness of domestic economic sector, traditional use of land and animal husbandry, poor
use labor power too comparing of global agricultural practice chemical fertilizers and improved
seed at the national level, increase land productivity not only dependent of yearly rain water and ideal weather .As it is indicated in five years plan of growth and transformation (2010/11-2010/15) PASDEP ,challenges of good governance in different levels encounters when implementation where capacity constraints among leaders and public servants at different administrative levels. To reduce challenges government launched a number of process reengineering and training programs to improve skills and ensure appropriate implication capacity fanatical mobilization inflation problem, rain dependency, under performance of industrial sector and good practices. According to PASDEP leadership management and organization implement mobilization of domestic resource, good governance industrialization and social sector of instructor implement is taken as solution in a countries political and economic growth and stability for this and others some basic question to be answered.
The Oromia Regional state is one of among the nine regional states of the FDRE Government. Similar to the FDRE Government the Oromia regional state also implemented different reforms to improve good governance in its own region. In 1999 E.C the Oromia regional state developed good governance package. The package includes four programs such as decentralized administration, civil service improvement program, justice system improvement programs and information communication technology program. Those programs were implemented through the region until 1999 E.C and there was a great improvement on the governance from time to time. Even though there was progress, still now the regional government declares that lack of good governance is the challenges of the leadership. Because of this reasons the region forms a task force which follows the good governance performance activities. This task force engaged in its activity starting from 2003 E.C.
Shabe Sombo woreda is one of 21woredas of Jimma zone which is located about 445 kilometers away from Addis Ababa to the Western of the country from center. It is relatively far away from the center. It is my observation that the level of awareness about good governance is law. How, the society participate on good governance is passive and those of them who exercise political power are considered as deviants in the Woreda. In the area like other Ethiopian some society, goals, and ideologies were assumed to be only for the leading powers that Administrative zone, observed some over well known problems. One of them is low participation of society in good governance related facts and outlook on leadership roles which is initiated to undertake the study in the area. Thus, the study was tries to explore the challenges of good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda in selected public sector
The shabe sombo the public sector took different reform to enhance good governance in the woreda for the last 12 years. The issues of good governance now a day also raised by the community repeatedly. Due to this reason the researcher questioned to know the challenges of good governance in shabe sombo public sector and decided to write her research paper on the assessment of the challenges of good governance. I hope my MA research paper may help my woreda to know the basic challenges of leadership and to respond for those of challenges appropriately.
1.2 Statement of the problem
As it is indicated in five years plan of growth and transformation (2010/11-2010/15) Plan for Accelerated Progress and Sustainable Development to End poverty (PASDEP), challenges of good governance in different levels encounters during the implementation where capacity constraints among leaders and public servants at different administrative levels. Therefore, in order to curb challenges government launched a number of process reengineering and training programs to improve skills and ensure appropriate policy implementation and implication capacity fanatical mobilization inflation problem, rain dependency, under performance of industrial sector and good practices. Several studies have been conducted on good governance among which significance of good governance and its challenges in Ethiopia and the findings show that lack of knowledge and skill of the officers on right implementation of good governance has impact on societal outlook, which constrains playing part in governance. To curb challenges, Ethiopian government has taken number of measures that could be considered as opportunities. This includes adaption of FDRE constitution, amendment of domestic laws, development plan that enhances the development of country in many accesses that helps society participate on government and related commitments of government (Gizaw,2014).challenges and opportunities of good governance in Ghana and the findings shown that until recently governance is characterized by poor institutional performance, weak parliament, and lack of independence of the judiciary, corrupt police force, political instability, abuse and misuse of political offices, insufficient budgetary accountability, and lack of respect for the rule of law and human rights. However, since around 1990s there observed significant improvement in respect to good governance in Ghana pertinent to performance of the institutions (Abrham, 2014).
The existence of poor responsiveness, lack of awareness about the management, lack of democracy, corruption, poor sense of ownership, double responsibility and lack of members’ awareness were found to be the reasons for weak performance. Besides, corruption and rent seeking behavior and activities, negligence by officials and employees of the public sectors, lagging of response, lack of mechanism to askpublic sectors about its deeds and officials run for getting political loyalty from their bosses to either sustain their power or to upgrade their position rather work to solve residents’ problem, lack of financial, material and human resources, lack of institutional capacity are the major challenges (Dinka, 2016).
According to Sebudubudu (2010) on his study entitled ‘the impact of good governance on development and poverty’ argues that good governance in Botswana facilitated development and impacted positively on poverty reduction and political stability, to this extent, this has been a responsive democracy. It is the researcher observation that the echelon of attentiveness about leadership of how and when the society involving on good governance is low down and those who exercise political power are considered as deviants in the city administration that the policies and ideologies were assumed to be only the leading powers to the administrative zone was observed as an overwhelming problem. Among the many, the public official are not accountable for the decision they made, slight contribution of society in the decision making process that the communities are decision taker rather than decision maker, the contentment level of services user is too stumpy and not considered as influential to bring an effective governance related facts and outlook of leadership roles which is initiated to undertake a research in the study area. Good governance is an ideal in which political processes translate the way of the people into public policies and establish the rules that efficiently and effectively deliver services to all members of society. The development literature on governance identifies a number of characteristics of good governance, including the rule of law, transparency, accountability, efficiency and effectiveness, participation and responsiveness. These characteristics are easily applied to assess a country’s quality of governance in the public sector. In Ethiopia the concept and the practice of good governance is a new phenomenon.
The government began to implement it due to service delivery dissatisfaction on the part
of the country and growing consensus that it is the root cause of all round crises in the
country. The Shabe Sombo woreda has been faced several good governance problems that come due to limited budget and lack of commitment lack of decision making skill interference of external body in various governmental sectors the applications are different in the study area. The gap of capacity building and ill commitment tends to reduce the effectiveness of governmental institutions. The lack of executive’s educational qualification, poor management, poor facilities, limited budget, and the absence of strategically oriented training, the implementation of policy rule and regulation of the sectors could be the major cause of challenge of poor government in the woreda.
This paper discusses the major challenges facing shabe sombo public sector to day, identifies governance problems that affect the capacity of the sector to meet those challenges, assesses international experience with improving governance in public institution and its effects on its institutional out comes, and presents analytic tools which are helpful for evaluating the governance in public institution and progress towards good governance.
The researcher observes that the level of awareness about good governance is law in the study area. How, the society participate in good governance is passive and those of them who exercise political power are considered as deviants in the Worada. In the area like other woredasome society goals and ideologies are assumed to be only for the leading powers to do all activates. The woreda selected public sectors observed some over well-known problems. One of them is low participation of society in good governance related facts and outlook on leadership roles which is initiated to undertake the study in the area. Thus, the study tries to describe the challenges of good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda in public institution. Purpose of the study is to assess good governance concern of local governments by that to enhance good governance awareness level of leaders, employees and community at the woreda level.

1.3 Objectives
General Objective
? The main objective of this research paper is to assess the challenges of good governance in shabe sombo public institution. .
Specific Objectives
? To assess the challenge of good governance principles and practices during implementation in shabe sombo woreda selected public institution
? To identify opportunities that may enhance effective governance in Shabe Sombo woreda selected public institution.
? To assess the status of good governance application in Shabe Sombo woreda in selected Public sector
1.4 Research Questions
This research wasaddress the following questions:
? What are the challenges of good governance principles in implementation?
? What opportunities are there to improve effective governance?
? What is the status of governance in Shabe Sombo woreda in selected Public sector
1.5 Significance of the study
The possible outcome of this study may provide and give broad information and real data about the topic gathered from reliable sources. Thus, it may have a helpful contribution to the presenting literature and research studies conducted around the area. Moreover, the research could discuss in detail the evaluation of the challenges of good governance. This study may provide in detail information on the factors which influence leaders’ decision in improving good governance. As well as it identifies the possible opportunities of leaders to build effective leadership. .
? To provide valuable information to information seekers regarding the major challenges of good governance in the selected public sectors of the study area.
? The study may serve as a stepping stone for others who want to pursue further study on similar or the same topic in the area.
? . To provide an input to authorities of theselected public sectors of the study area and decision makers for the future actions.
1.6 Scope of the Study
Due to time and resource constraints, the research did not based on comprehensive study of all challenges that society is comforting in the contemporary world. It was not also including all the sectors in shabe sombo woredaIt was not also include all the principle of good governance. Thestudy was confined to the assessment of that challenge and opportunities of good governance. Woreda selected public sector in Jimma zone of oromia region. The study was undertook different stockholders such as Shabe Sombo woreda cabinets, focus on selected different sector employees and public sector stockholders. Therefore, any term found in the study wasinterpret in relation to good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda.
1.7 Limitation of the study
As the concept of governance is multidimensional that includes social, economic and
political aspects; it is difficult to draw inferences from political and administrative
dimension, hence this study gives more emphasis to the political and institutional
scopes even though they are not equallyselect .There are various factors that influenced and affected the research. Among these, some of the respondents were unwilling to give reliable and valid data especially about their personal information .Some of the respondent in the woreda and administration departments refused to give information and turned back the questioners
? The leaders of the woreda could not be obtained by the reason of close meeting.
? Respondents feared to tell the reality due to the political nature of the case.
? Financial constraint during collecting sufficient data from extended number of sample respondent, time and social constraints for data gathering and analysis.
? The overlap of work because social problems.

1.8 Operational definitions of key terms
In some circumstance a word may carry different meanings and the term that was used repeatedly in this study explained as follow:
Leaders: defined as woreda level leaders having legitimate power. In addition, Keble administrators having with legitimate power. Social hierarchies, cultural norms, and organizational structure all provide the basis for legitimate power.
Politics: it is about decision and it occurs in public space. It refers to ministers and cabinets, parliaments, councils; it means parties and pressure groups, civil services and courts (Philipos,1991)
Governance: – refers to the process of decision making and the process by which decisions areimplemented or not implemented “administrative authority in the management of countries affairs at all level. The way “power is exercised through a country’s economic, political, and social institution” the World Bank’s PRSP Handbook .Governance comprises the complex mechanisms, processes and institutions, through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, mediate their differences and exercise their legal rights and obligations.
Good governance: is the process and institutions produce results that meet the need of the
society, while making the best use of resources at their disposal. It also defined as the rule of the rulers typically within given set of rules. It is “among other things participatory, transparent and accountable. It is also effective and equitable which promotes rule of law” (UNDP)
Affects: – Influence some things that contribute to or have an influence on the outcome of same
thing(MicrosoftEncarta,2009)
Implementation : carry out or fulfill same thing: to put same thing in to effect or action lived.
Sustainability: – Encarta dictionary, (2009) define sustainable capable of sustained and sustain
means, lengthen or extend duration or space, prolong or keep in the good work. The definition
adapted by FAO (1988), sustainably development in the management and government of the
natural resource base and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a
manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and
future generations such sustainable development of society in governance related factor

CHAPTER- TWO
2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical framework of the study
2.1.1 Governance and Government
Governance is an old concept that originates from early democratic political theory which discusses the relationship between the rulers and the elope they rule. For instance, in the 19th century Woodrow Wilson defined a government that practice good governance as “a government that can be properly and successfully implement a given policy…. With the utmost possible efficiency and at the least possible cost of ether money or energy” (cited in comported 2002)
Governance is the process of decision-making and how those decisions are implemented. Governance is good when the systems and processes are accountable, transparent, just, responsive and participatory. Good governance or simply governance (World Bank 2007a) has been considered as an enormous concept (Barten et al. 2002), derived from the word government (Geddes 2005). Though some studies have defined governance and good governance differently (UNESCAP 2008), most authors mention them as synonymous. Whatever the debate over understanding of concepts, governance and good governance are seen as ‘partnership and social inclusion’ in politics and policies of concerned governments (Geddes 2005, p. 23).
Literally good governance means, what is not bad governance (Morshed 2007) or what is good enough governance (Grindle 2004), or that the level of goodness is high in governing processes (Besancon 2003). In this way it is suggested that good governance should be characterized as reduced corruption, improved accountability, adequately decentralized, well managed public resources, introduced proper laws and equality, restructured civil services and so on (Grindle 2004). Similarly the World Bank researchers mentioned six indicators that define a government as good or bad (Kaufmann, Kraay&Lobaton 1999). Hout (2002, p. 516) mentioned those indicators as follows: – Voice and accountability, Political stability/lack of violence, Government effectiveness, Regulatory burden, Rule of law and Graft.
Researchers also assert that a one standard deviation increase of any of these governance criteria is associated with a 2½ fold increase in per capita income, a 4 fold decrease in infant mortality and a 15 to 25 percent increase in literacy (Azmat 2007; Kaufmann, Kraay&Lobaton 1999).
In contrast, to the above criteria, international development agencies (IDAs) such as the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programs (UNDP), and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) have identified a number of basic components for good governance. Amongst these components four are common and universally recognized: accountability, participation, predictability, and transparency. By accountability it is understood that the governing authority would be answerable for its delivering of services. By participation the understanding is that local people and private sectors would be engaged with decision making processes. By predictability it is understood that, governing authority would make a decision implementable by following local laws and regulations. And finally, by transparency the understanding is that all the information that affects people should be available to the people (ADB 2000; Gurung 2000).
The terms “governance” and “good governance” are now fully part of the language of development. Whereas bad governance is broadly recognized as a root cause of poverty, good governance is often seen as a way to cure all ills. “Good governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development.” (Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations)
Government is made up of the structures and systems established for service delivery and ensuring security, voice and protection of all people in a country’s borders who fall under authority of the state. “Government must be more ambitious than a do-no-harm approach – it must actually be capable of doing some good.” (Paul Collier, author of The Bottom Billion)
2.1.2 Concept of Good Governance
The notion of good governance evolves logically from the concept of governance .Although the term has no uniform definition it has gaining currency in various literature and defined variously by different people .organization and government according to their own experience and interest .These definition generally describe good governance in terms of principles and norms ,which characterized it and are applicable as well as relevant for all level of government . The concept of good’ in ‘governance’ is an appendage to the word ‘governance’ and it is seen as the process and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised (World Bank, 2004). Furthermore, governance includes how governments are selected, held accountable, monitored and replaced with an emphasis on the capacity of government to manage resources and respect the rule of law (World Bank, 2004; Boyte, 2005). Therefore, the word ‘good’ in governance connotes the proper exercise of authority, management of resources and respect for the rule of law in accordance to laid-down principles for the benefit of all in a society.
In this regard, Babawale (2007) sees good governance as the exercise of political power to promote the public good and the welfare of the people. He argues that good governance is the absence of lack of accountability in government, corruption, and political repression, suffocation of civil society and denial of fundamental human rights. He points out the attribute of good governance in any society to include: accountability, transparency in government procedures, high expectation of rational decisions, predictability in government behavior, openness in government transactions, free flow of information, respect for the rule of law and protection of civil liberties, and press freedom.
Also, Brinkerhoff (2005) argues that governance extends beyond government action to address the role of citizens and the way groups and communities within society organize to make and implement decisions on matters of general concern. He observes that promoting good governance includes: reforms to increase accountability, transparency and responsiveness. Furthermore, good governance seeks to improve the capacity of the state, encompassing a variety of strategies to increase efficiency and effectiveness of government performance (Omona, 2010). This implies that accountability, transparency and responsiveness on the part of government and its officials are the hallmark of good governance in any society.
Ikotun (2004) argues that the concept of good governance characterize issues of performance in the management of a nation’s political, economic and social resources to enhance human capacity, social well-being and sustainable development in the society. In the same vein, Kofi Annan observes that good governance is vital for the protection of rights and the advancement of economic and social development (cited in Kim et al, 2005). Also, Ekpe (2008) argues that the purpose of good governance is to create conducive climate for political and socioeconomic development and to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of development programs in a society. He points out that the concept of good governance is used to characterize the interplay of the best practices in the administration of a state or nation for sustainable development. The fore going shows the importance of good governance to development in a society. If that is the case, what then is development?
2.1.3 Concept of Decision Making
There are a number of ideas and principles for making good decisions that affect many people – decisions made by civil society organizations or governmental authorities, at a local, national or international level. These ideas come from the Principles of Good Governance and are used by international and local NGOs as well as donors and governments themselves. They are also embedded in the Good Governance Framework. Those principles are: – Accountability, Participation, Equity and inclusiveness, Transparency, Rule of Law, Effectiveness and efficiency, Responsiveness and consensus oriented.

2.1.4 Good governance assessment models
Managerial Model:
In this model people are seen as passive recipients of information. Governing bodies deliver messages unilaterally to the people;
Consultative Model
This is a direct contrast with the managerial model. Here a governing body uses information systems to inform people, which system consequently facilitates communication between people and government. Chadwick and May (2003) described this as a ‘pull’ model as it reduces the gap between citizens and their government.
Participatory Model:
In this model people are provided with sufficient information which facilitates their involvement in the government programs. As there are no practical barriers for people’s involvement, information power helps people to form civil society. All people, or at least the maximum number, participate in the decision making process. The spirit of synergy and mutual assistance helps to achieve the goal. In addition to these, Navarra and Cornford (2005) developed the ‘Disciplinary Model’ of governance. In this model people may initiate collective social programs when they are fully empowered with information. In fact this model enforces local governing bodies provide for better policy to people, which was not possible in the last three models. Newman (2007) developed four models of governance on the basis of mode of relationships between service providers and their clients. These are:
? Hierarchical governance: the mode of relationship is rule based, where providers impose standardized templates of policies and local community receives that service. Here the service providing process is bounded with legal frames, monitoring audits and evaluation.
? Managerial governance: the mode of relationship is motivational, where both service providers and receivers are likely to act instrumentally. Service receivers contract individually and participate to achieve goals jointly, encouraged with incentives.
? Network governance: the mode of relationship is relational, where reciprocal communication develops trust in each other. Here collaboration/networking between service providers and receivers evolve into a friendly environment of program implementation.
? Self-governance: the mode of relationships normative, where service providers uphold strong values and norms to facilitate receivers to govern themselves. The developed organizational culture empowers local community to activate their own programs.
Similarly, on the basis of the people’s engagement; four models have been developed by researchers to describe qualities of governance. These are:
Managerial model –top down approach of implementation with marginal scope for people’s participation;
Legislative model –decision making process initiated from the top to develop a common agenda through consulting the people;
Limited community participation model –engage community to open up the decision making process that finally generates harmony within the governing body and/ or within the community; and
Community empowerment model –bottom up approach that happens because of extensive community participation (Gibson, Lacy & Dougherty 2005). As a working proposition, there seems to be a good correlation between the stage of participation and the model of governance that can be depicted along the following lines.
2.1.5 Relationship between People’s Participation and Good Governance
This argument thus recognizes that the level of good governance increases through people’s
heightened participation in development programs. Japan International Cooperation Agencies
(JICA 1995) reported that good governance is the foundation of participatory development
in as much as it provides the government roles needed to encourage participation and create the environment in which people can participate effectively. Effective people’s participation
enhances the transparency of the development works, the accountability of the implementing
authority, and compliance with the local laws, which consequently establish good governance.
The above discussion thus indicates people’s participation and good governance are inseparable from each other JICA (1995, p. 75) Chadwick and May (2003) stated that the citizen-state relation i.e. the quality of governance (here e-democracy) varies with the variation of people’s empowerment levels that developed through the delivery of government information. They reconfigured three models of governance which were initially developed by Laudon (1977) on the basis of interaction between citizen and government.
Table 1 Correlation between Stages of Participation and Governance
Stage of Participation Model of Governance
Stage-1: Inform- a one-way process when the governing agency tells people about
their decision before or during implementation of development programs. Authoritarian Model: in this model a decision
comes from the top and is implemented mostly by bureaucrats. Total process of program is not transparent, accountable and predictable.
Stage- 2: Consult- a two-way
communication, but engagement of people
is limited within the decision making of
the program. Governing agency is used to
inform people to get feedback but makes
decisions and implements them
unilaterally. Bureaucratic Model: in this model people’s
participation is not enough to ensure the
transfer of power. The process of program is
less transparent and less predictable, and the
agency remains accountable to the top not to
the people.
Stage- 3: Involve- at this stage governing
agency not only listens to people to make
decision, but also engages people for
budget distribution and implements the
program together. Usually the whole
community does not get the scope to be
engaged in this process. Political Model: in this model people’s
participation is enough, but people are engaged
in the development programs in different
segments, which may evolve conflicts between
different interest groups. Governing agency is
transparent and accountable to a group of
people but not to the whole community.
Stage-4: Empower- at this stage the
governing agency allows developing the
capacity of people to come with their
decisions and resources to implement
development programs jointly. Agency
works as a facilitator. Democratic Model: this model allows
developing partnerships with people, delegates
authority to make decisions and implements
program with a sharing of local knowledge.
Total process of the program is highly
transparent, accountable and predictable.
Source: JICA (1995)
The above Table illustrates that good governance can be achieved through continuous
endeavor to empower the people. This Table can be used as a tool to identify the position of
governance at a certain stage of participation, which was provide a clear indication about the
next step to achieve good governance.
2.1.6 Models of Good Governance on the Basis of Participation Levels
Reviewing all above statements and models, an outline and diagram of models of governance on the basis of people’s participation can be drawn up, which is shown along with the following lines
Authoritarian Model: This model evolves when people’s participation remains at stage 1, that
is, at the information level. In this situation, decisions and resources come from the top and
projects are implemented mostly by the Representatives or a display board or snail mail to inform people about the program. The total process of the program is not transparent, accountable or predictable.
Bureaucratic Model: This model develops when people’s participation level Governing Agency remains the consultation stage. Governing agencies, in this model, consult with the people and use the resources of the people, but do not share power with them, to make decisions and/or policy. The participation is not consultation. People are treated as customers or clients by the authority as they do not share the whole process of development implementation.
Political Model: This model evolves when the participation level reaches the stage of
involvement. In this model, the governing agency shares the knowledge, resources and authority
where both sides share histories, rituals, values and other common interests, and
establish a more cooperative network to develop any program. But, people can be
engaged with the development programs fractionally, and that can bring about
conflicts. People are treated as partners, players or as contingent in this model, but the building of trust between the agency and the local people may remain weak because of the segmented network that has evolved. Predictability, transparency, and accountability are high in this model, as far as some people are conceived, but not for the community as a whole. To show this segmented scenario has been drawn, which represents a better area of good governance.
Democratic Model: This model emerges gradually as people’s participation attains the stage of empowerment. This model allows developing a partnership with people, delegating authority to make decisions and implementing programs with the sharing of local knowledge, resources and values. This model allows participatory planning and strategic decision making, which facilitate the development of a common vision, Predictability Accountability Participation Transparency Articulation of needs, effective, efficient and transparent management that facilitate a joint working environment. Transparency, accountability and predictability are fairly high in this model finally this is the most rational model when people are considered as
stewards or navigators. But, authorities need to be flexible and open to encourage the
development of this model. The above diagrams thus illustrate that good governance cannot be achieved only improving systems or capacities of the governing agencies. Democratic good governance can be achieved through proper cooperation between governing agencies and local people. On the one end, governing agencies need to come close to the local people by extending and smoothing pro people systems and approaches. On the other end, local people need to be empowered enough to make joint decisions that may have an effect on them. Only through these reciprocal activities people’s participation may be effective towards achieving good governance
Economic growth is about increasing the size of the pie, while equity ensures that everybody has a piece of it. The quality of governance can affect both these outcomes, positively or adversely. For governance to result in positive development outcomes, it is necessary to understand how it works in different spheres – political, legal?judicial, selected public sectors economic and social?environmental. Hence, it needs to measure it. There has been an explosive growth in governance assessments. A host of organizations routinely rank countries on various governance parameters based on a given set of indicators. The methodology followed for assessing governance varies from subjective perceptions of experts on the one extreme to hard data on the other. The limitations of not only the indicators themselves but also the methodologies are well recognized. It is a challenge to come up with a new framework for assessing governance given the complexity and controversy involving the subject.
The method of assessment varies from case to case, but is largely based on subjective assessment. If it is done by country team in case of World Bank, it is done through a cross section of experts and well informed persons in case of WGS. On one extreme Bangladesh governance assessment is based on studies by research scholars and on the extreme the complete assessment is based on hard data in case of Fiji’s index
Table 2 The principle and elements of governance in different countries
Framework Governance
Elements are
referred as Their
Number Particulars Assessment
World Bank
Country Policy and
Institutional Assessment
(CPIA) Clusters Four a. Economic Management
b. Structural Policies
c. Social inclusion and equity
d. Public sector management and institutions By WB country team on a scale of 1?6
World Bank
Institute
(WGI) Aspects Six a. Voice and Accountability
b. Political Stability and absence of violence
c. Government effectiveness
d. Regulatory quality
e. Rule of law
f. Control of corruption Constructed from existing perception indicators derived from 37 different data sources produced by 31 different organizations
United Nations University World
Government Survey Stages or
Arenas Six a. Civil Society
b. Political Society
c. Government
d. Bureaucracy
e. Economic Society
f. Judiciary By a cross section of local experts or well informed persons (WIPs)
International IDEA
Framework Pillars Four a. Citizenship, law and rights
b. Representative and accountable government
c. Civil Society and Popular Participation
d. Democracy Beyond the state
Fiji’s Governance
Index Dimensions Four a. Rule of Law
b. Government effectiveness
c. Regulatory quality
d. Social development Secondary Data
USAID Dimension Four a. Rule of Law
b. Elections and Political Processes
c. Civil Society
d. Transparency and Accountability
State of Governance in
Bangladesh 2006 Dimension Seven a. Political Governance
b. Macroeconomic Governance
c. Public Administration
d. Justice
e. Local governance
f. Civil Society
g. Social Protection By Research Scholars
Source
2.1.7 Core elements of good governance
Different international and regional organizations including the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) tried to define the following elements as core characteristics of good governance(UNDP, 1997) (ADB,2002) (S. Grindle,2005) (ODI, 2006) (SHRDC, 2004) (AUSAID, 2005) (UNDESA,2007):
Participation which refers to the process by which all men and women have a voice in decision making either directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests. The course of such broad participation is based up on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively. Good governance also requires that civil society has the opportunity to participate during the formulation of development strategies and that directly affected communities and groups should be able to participate in the design and implementation of programs and projects. Even where projects have a secondary impact on particular localities or population groups, there should be a consultation process that takes their views into account. This aspect of governance is an essential element in securing commitment and support for projects and enhancing the quality of their implementation (IFAD, 1999:3).
Rule of law, the legal frame works should be fair and enforced impartially particularly the laws on human rights. A fair, predictable and stable legal framework is essential so that businesses and individuals may assess economic opportunities and act on them without fear of arbitrary interference or expropriation. This requires that the rules be known in advance, that they be actually in force and applied consistently and fairly, that conflicts be resolvable by an independent judicial system, and that procedures for amending and repealing the rules exist and are publicly known (ibid).
Transparency has to be built on the free flow of information. In transparency processes, institutions and information are directly accessible to the concerned bodies so as to understand and monitor them. As private-sector investment decisions depend on public knowledge of the government’s policies and confidence in its intentions, as well as in the information provided by the government on economic and market conditions, transparency of decision-making, particularly in budget, regulatory and procurements, is critical to the effectiveness of resource use and the reduction of corruption and waste.
Responsiveness refers to the attempt of institutions and process to serve all stakeholders. It refers to the public servant’s responsiveness to the public, by methods and procedures to enforce the public was. Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe (Obaidullah, 2001).
Consensus orientation urges good governance to mediate differing interests to arrive at broad consensus on what is the best interest of the group, and where possible, on policies and procedures.
Equity and equality, good governance has to promote to all men and women to advance or sustain their wellbeing. According to UN-Habitat the sharing of power leads to equity in the access to and use of resources. Women and men must participate as equals in all urban decision making, priority-setting and resource allocation processes. Inclusive cities provide everyone – be it the poor, the young or older persons, religious or ethnic minorities or the handicapped – with equitable access to nutrition, education, employment and livelihood, health care, shelter, safe drinking water, sanitation and other basic services (Linkola,2002:3). Linkola suggests the practical means of realizing this principle that include, inter alia:
• Ensuring that women and men have equal access to decision-making processes, resources and
• basic services and that this access is measured through gender disaggregated data;
• Establish quotas for women representatives in local authorities and encourage their promotion
• to higher management positions within municipalities;
• Ensure bye-laws and economic development policies support the informal sector;
• Promote equal inheritance rights for land and property;
• Establishing equitable principles for prioritizing infrastructure development and pricing urban services;
• Removing unnecessary barriers to secure tenure and to the supply of finance; creating fair and predictable regulatory frameworks

Effectiveness and efficiency, the concept of good governance should ensure efficiency and effectiveness in the use of resources of a nation having not compromise the crucial needs of citizens. It is the extent to which limited human and financial resources are applied without unnecessary, waste, delay or corruption. Urban areas must be financially sound and cost effective in their management of revenue sources and expenditures, the administration and delivery of services, and in the enablement, based on comparative advantage, of government, the private sector and communities to contribute formally or informally to the urban economy. A key element in achieving efficiency is to recognize and enable the specific contribution of women to the urban economy (ibid). It also refers the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government’s commitment to such policies (M.A. Thomas).
Accountability:-refers to establishing of criteria and oversight mechanisms to measure the performance of public officials as well as to ensure that the standards are met. Decision makers in public institutions, private sector and civil society organizations should be accountable to the public as well as to institutional stakeholders. This accountability can be differed based on the nature of the organization or manner of decision either the decision is external or internal to the organization.
Based on the above literature reviews, to study whether good governance is well implemented or not, the researcher identified the core elements of good governance that can identify the challenges which hinder implementation of good governance principles. However, among the eight elements five of them were considered to assess them properly. Theses selected elements were participation, transparency, equity & equality, effectiveness & efficiency and accountability

2.2 Conceptual frame work of the study
The conceptual frame work is adapted from {LIU,2002 ,Mardiasmo,2008 and semunigs ,2011} seeking to align the independent attributes those have effects on characteristics of good governance that are used as indicators to assess the practice of good governance to identify major challenges in implementation ,factors of good governance indication in the conceptual framework taken in consideration but not limited to it .Generally if identified factors positively affect those characteristic it lead to good governance and as result the quality of service delivery to the citizen increases . As the citizens delivered services that fit their need then their sense of belongingness on public institution increases and their trust on government too.
Ultimately securing good governance would makes an environment conductive for development endeavor if it goes on the opposite governance was become poor and hampers development endeavor of a given locality.

CHAPTER THREE
3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES
3.1 Introduction
This part was aimed at describing the procedures that was used in conducting this research. It describes, the research design such as research approach, research type, research strategy and research time dimension, methods of data collection, sampling techniques such as population or universe, sampling frame, sampling unit, sample size and sample, sources of data such as primarily and secondary data sources, data collection tools (instruments), data analysis and interpretation, operational frame work of variables, ethical consideration of the study.
3.2 Description of the study Area
Shabe sombo woreda is one of among 21 woredas in Jimma administrative zone of oromia regional state. It is located at the western part of Jimma zone at distance of 50kms from Jimma town and 445km from Addis Ababa. According to the Central Statistical agency of Ethiopia (2007), the total population for this woreda is 112,068. Of these, 56,737 are men and 55,331 are women; 5,265 or 4.7% of its population are urban dwellers. Religion wise, the majority of the inhabitants are Muslims, i.e. 76.83% of the total population, while 21.26% of the population professed Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and 1.77% are Protestant.
Concerning of the Administrative structure, the Woreda is divided in to twenty two Kebles. In relation to the public sectors there are 34 public sectors found at office level. The woreda also have 56 schools, 5 health centers and 20 health post which rendering service to the public through 1981 civil servant. In addition, there are five voluntary organized associations in the woreda. In the woreda there are women’s, youth, teachers, physically disabled and elders association. Finally, shabe sombo woreda has the potential for crop, coffee, spice production and livestock rearing which is mainly undertaken by small holder’s farmers and also relatively growing a number of agro-processing industries operating in the area.

3.3 Research design
As stated by Kothari (2004,p.32), “designing research is making a road map to study which leads all function and steps undertaken. As the conceptual structure with in which research is conducted, it consists the blue print for the collection , measurement and analysis of data .It is also strategy of describing procedure about sample size ,data source means of data collection and methods of data processing , analyzing and presenting based on available time and recourse. In this study, the researcher was use the research design of descriptive particularly survey type of research.
This method was generally wide in scope and important to determine opinion, knowledge and experience of specific population from those who are familiar with the issue.
Moreover, the researcher chooses the descriptive research because it is low in cost and often involves the description of the extent of association between two or more variables. Therefore, this method was be used to describe the status of good governance practice and challenges in the process of implementation at the study area.
3.4 Research Approach
The study applying mixed research approaches to describe practice and challenges of good governance. Why the researcher chooses both approaches the main approach is that the practice and challenges of good governance is difficult to get the representative data of its degree of implementation. Merely rather is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and behaviors treated by qualitative approach. By understanding these barriers, the researcher was be use qualitative approach to generate reliable data by using interview and focus group discussion. The quantitative approach also employed with qualitative approach to generate data in quantitative form through questioners and both was be fruitfully combine in analysis part to evaluate complementary aspects of the subject under study.
3.5 Population and Sampling Techniques
According to Bhattcherjee, A. (2012) description, Sampling is the statistical process of selecting a subset (called a “sample”) of a population of interest for purposes of making observations and statistical inferences about that population. The sampling process comprises of several stage. The first stage is defining the target population. The second step in the sampling process is to choose a sampling frame. It is possible that sampling frames may not entirely be representative population and if so, inferences derived by such a sample may not be generalizable to the population. The last step in sampling is choosing a sample from the sampling frame using a well-defined sampling technique. Thus, in this study, the researcher was use initially defining the target population; then determining the sample frame and sample unit; sampling techniques, sampling size and finally picking a representative sample.
3.5.1 Target Population
The study was taken an approach to investigate the practices and challenges of Good Governance in selected public sectors in the study area. Hence, the target population of the study is employees accessible at human resource development section of their respective organization such as civil servants and leaders of selected public sectors, Development agents (DAs), leaders of community association, and selected school principals ; teachers in shabe sombo woreda.
3.5.2 Sample Frame
According to Bhattacherjee, A., (2012) the second step in the sampling process was to choose a sampling frame. This is an accessible section of the target population (usually a list with contact information) from where a sample can be drawn. It is list of all the sampling units in the population. Here, the researcher identified as the sampling frame of the study comprises a list of sample unit from which the sample was drawn. Thus, the sample frame of this study is list of civil servants of selected public sectors such as woreda administration, education, health, agriculture, road authority, finance and economic development, water and minerals, MSE development, justice, and public service office, and DAs, health workers accessible at human resource development section of their respective organization and leaders of community associations.
3.5.3 Sample unit
Sample unit of this study included leaders and civil servants of woreda administration, education, health, agriculture, road authority, finance and economic development, water and minerals, MSE development, justice, and public service office accessible at human resource development section of their respective organization; supervisors ; principals of selected school; supervisors of agriculture and health; and leaders of community associations. The researcher selected them for the reason that an issue of good governance is directly or in directly affect the above sample unit.
3.5.4 Sample Size
3.5.4.1 Sampling size For Quantitative sampling
According to woreda civil service sector (2016/17) there are 1589 civil servant in selected public sector of the woreda. Therefore, in quantitative research sample size is determined using a statistical formula as quantitative research is intentionally random sampling.
Here in the study, to determine the sample size, the researcher got 93% of confidence level and an estimation of +7% level of precision; because it is easier to manage sample size; so that the researcher can control systematic error easily. Although the sample size determination table can provide the size of the sample, the researcher needs to calculate the necessary sample size by combining the desired precision and confidence of level to increase its reliability and validity. Different authors use different formula to determine the sample size of the study for quantitative. Accordingly, in this study, the following formula set by Kothari (2004), in the case of definite population, was used to calculate sample size of the study.
n= Z2 (p) 2(q) 2(N)____
d2 (N-1) + (Z) 2(P) 2(q) 2
Where:
n is the desired sample size; N is total population of micro and small enterprises operators in the study area; Z is 1.81 that is z-value for 93% of confidence level; p is an estimation of variance (0.5); q is (1-p) which is equal to 0.5; and e is an estimation of sampling error which is +7%=0.7. Hence
n= (1.81)2(0.5)(0.5)(1589) 0.819025(1589) = 1301.43 = 151
0.07)2(1589-1) + (1.81)2(0.5)(0.5) 7.7812 +0.819025 8.6
Therefore, the desired sample of employees of the population of selected public sectors in the study was 151. Of which the sample size of civil servants from selected public sectors was proportionally calculated as follows:
xi (n) = xi(151)
N 1589
Where, xi is the number of population in DAs, teachers, principals, health workers and civil servant of selected sectors at woreda level.
Table; 3 Sample size proportion for employees of the population of selected public sectors in the woreda.
s.no Name of public sector Location Total employees Sample population
Total
1 Selected Public office found at woreda level Urban 208 19
2 Schools teachers Urban and rural 1088 103
3 Principals Urban and rural 56 6
4 Health center and health extension worker
Urban and rural 191 18
5 DAS’ Rural 46 5
Total 1589 151
Source: Own computation based data obtained from woreda civil service sector, 2016/17.
3.5.4.2 Sampling size For Qualitative sampling
To used different data collection instrument for purposive selection of key informants who was administer through interview can be keep away from the list to avoid double selection to use qualitative approach .This was only employed for the offices that key informants were select. In addition, key informant administer through interview for this study were also select purposively. It included official assume to have direct responsible to the issue of good governance representative from office head public sector .and coordinators of civic association. Focus group discussion was held with one group. The participants of focus groups discussion was be from community association committee groups were arranged for development activities in the woreda administration were select purposively.
3.5.5 Sampling technique
In this study, to select sample respondents from the total population, both probability and non probability sampling techniques were used. The reason for probability was that to select respondents from the civil servant. Therefore, stratified random sampling was used to identify the respondents out of the sample unit. Whereas non probability sampling was used to select key respondents or informants that are the leader of selected public sector and the community association committee were be selected purposively, because the researcher believed that they can provide enough information concerning the topic under study

Table 4 Summarization of sampling and sampling techniques.
No. Sampling frame Sample unit Total population Sample size

Sampling
Toque
Methodology
used
1 Civil servants of selected public sectors Civil servants of woreda administration, education, health, agriculture, road authority, finance and economic development, water and minerals, MSE development, justice, and public service office 1589 151 Stratified Random Sample questionnaire
2 Community association committee The committee of Community associations of women, youth, teachers, disability and elders
10 10 Purposive Sampling FGD
3 Leaders of selected sectors Leaders of woreda administration, education, health, agriculture, road authority, finance and economic development, water and minerals, MSE development, justice, and public service office.. 10 10

Purposive sampling Interview
Total respondents of the study 171
Source: Developed by Researcher.

3.5.6 Sampling design
A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining sample from the sampling frame .It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher adopted in selecting sampling unit from which inferences about the population was drown (kother,2004)
The subjects of this study were those populations serving in public sector. To draw representative from sample frame public sectors classify according to their geographical location as office found at the woreda and those institution locate at rural part of the woreda .Then to address employees at the rural part of the woreda, all secondary, preparatory and second cycle primary school, selected purposively. The health center, health posts and farmers train center also take from those kebeles in which sample schools were selected.
To ease the process of data collection researcher used the clusters already establish by the woreda education office uses and the number of representative or employees or teachers of schools from each cluster determined based on the number of employees they have and sample were select from each school by using stratified probability sampling method .
The sample populations from public sector at the center of the woreda are development agents, supervisors, civil servants at woreda level also select by the same sampling technique to the size of representative population.
3.5.7 Data collection techniques
To make the way of getting reliable data easy before preparing questionnaires to sample population including the study, the researcher informed respondents all the necessary things which the study were required for academic purpose. Also ethical issue and confidentiality communicate with sample respondents prior to data collection .Doing so to achieve the intend objective and enable to address the research questions closed and open-ended questionnaires with structure and semi-structure interview and focus groups discussion done during data collection with employees, official and other participants of this study.
3.5.7.1 Source of Data
In this study both of qualitative and quantitative data obtained from primary and secondary data sources
Primary data sources
To address the leading question and to achieve the objective of the study firsthand information was obtained from sample population through questioner, interview and focused group discussion. The data for the study from different documents also analyzed.
Secondary data source
Relevant books, working papers, previous research, reports, web site, unpublished materials and other related documents were used in this research as secondary data source and government policy document also used to support the reliability of the information obtained from sample population.
3.5.8 Data collection instrument
3.5.8.1 Questionnaire
Both open ended and cloth ended questionnaires prepared and distributed to 151 civil servants. The question distributed for sample respondents were translated to the local language (Afaan Oromo) to understand easily as much as possible.
3.5.8.2 Interview
The researcher used semi-structured interviews contained the components of both, structured and unstructured interviews. In semi-structured interviews, interviewer prepares a set of same questions to be answered by all interviewees. Moreover, in this type of primary data collection researcher had direct control over the flow of process and she had a chance to clarify certain issues during the process. Interview were conducted with -10 respondents who are purposively select from office heads by assuming they have direct contact with the issue of good governance. All interviews have done by allocating time 30min to each respondent. The qualitative data were presented by using narration and both the data obtained from both instrument triangulated to make finding meaning full.
3.5.8.3 Focus group discussion
Focus group discussion was held with one group only. The participants of focus groups discussion were from groups arranged for development activities in the Keble’s such Keble was be selected purposively.
3.5.9 Method of Data Analysis
Data collected through questionnaires were reorganized in to five main categories based on main good governance indicators used in the study and analyzed descriptively. In analyzing of the data, SPSS software version 20 has been used for simple averages and frequency. Information obtained from interviews of key leaders support the analysis of data collecteddirectly from employee and service user respondents. The data, both quantitative and qualitative, gathered through each tool is organized, analyzed and interpret to meet the objectives of the study. For data analysis, combinations of quantitative and qualitative methods are use. The quantitative data collect through questionnaire is organized and analyzed in a way that first the responses for the close ended questions are editing, code and feed to computer by applying appropriate software. Then descriptive statistics mainly frequency, percentage, and cross tabulation was computed for analysis purpose.
On the other hand the qualitative data collected using open ended questions of the survey questionnaire; interviews held with selected public sectors in the woreda and community association committees and using informal discussions with the user communities is organized and analyzed qualitatively through content analysis. For this, first, the note from the informal discussion is transcribed and translated from the local language (Afaan Oromo) to English. Second, by reading through all of the qualitative data, it is review and organize to develop a general understanding of the data set and short memos are prepare which was best help in organizing and categorizing the data in to concepts either by question or by case. Then, through narrative description the results of the entire qualitative data is analyzed and interpreted. Lastly, the analysis and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data are integrated to handle the research problem.
3.6 Ethical Consideration
Participants of the study were informed about the objectives of the study emphasizing that the data was used only for the intended academic purpose. The data were collected by employing various techniques with the consent of the participants of the study. Careful attention has been given regarding respecting the rights, needs, and values of the study subject and maintaining confidentiality of the data and acknowledging sources information.
3.7 Validity ; Reliability of the Instrument
Since validity is refers to what the instrument measures the proposed objectives, the researcher used different methods to increase validity of the instruments. After the questionnaires were translated into Afaan Oromo language, the researcher has consulted language teachers to comment and correct any difference between the two versions. Before the actual survey, a pilot test was done with sample of 20 respondents from target population (2 respondents from woreda administrative office 2, respondents from Education office 2,respondents from health, 2 respondents from road authority2, respondents from water and energy 2, respondents from civil service woreda administrative 2 ,respondents from MSED2 , respondents from justice2 and 2 respondents from agricultural respondents from FD to check the clarity and validity of the items randomly. However, respondents from pilot survey were got the parts of actual survey. Based on the comments the test, different adjustments were made and the modified questionnaires were distributed to obtain during the respondents. Based on the data collected, each basic research questions were examined.
Table 6 Reliability Statistics
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items Meaning
0.72 28 Reliable
Source: Source: Field Survey, 2018

CHAPTER FOUR
4 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Introduction
This chapter deals with the data analysis, discussion, finding and interpretation of data gathered through questionnaire, Interview and FGD. The chapter analyzes, discuss and present objectives of the research. And also the data collected from different sources using different tools have been consolidated as well as analyzed using SPSS software package and other statistical tools and finally presented using graphs, charts, percentages and tables.
4.2 Response Rate
From the total sample size of 171, 10 leaders have been dedicated for interview and 10 head and vice of the committee of Community associations for focus group discussion. Thus, the remaining 151 questionnaire have been distributed to the civil servants of the 10 selected woreda sectors study area, such as Education, health, road authority, water, mineral and energy,Publicservice and Human resource Development, woreda selected public sectorsMSED, justice ,finance and economic development and agricultural sectors. From these 151 (100%) of them have returned the questionnaires for this study and in the qualitative approach 9 (90%) and 8 (80) of interviewees and FGD participants respectively achieved in the data gathering methods. Thus, the researcher believes that the respondent rates were achievable to precede to analyses the collected data through the different data gathering tools.
Table 5 Response Rate
No. Data Collection Tools Number of Planned Respondents Number of Actual Respondents Respondent Rate
1. Questionnaires 151 151 100%
2. Interview 10 9 90%
3. FGD 10 8 80%
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.3 Demographic Profile of the Respondents
To understand the demographic features of the respondents some characters were included in the questionnaire, like gender, age, educational status, work experience (service year) and marital status. The purpose of demographic data; it gives a context to the findings of the study. The summarized demographic information of the sample population for this study is presented as follows.
4.3.1 Gender of Respondents
While considering the gender, out of total respondents, 111(73.5%) and 40(26.5%) are male and female respondents respectively, from the data the researcher understood that the majority of the respondents are male that engaged in different expert positions. This may emanate from cultural influence and the perception of male on the representation of women.
Table 7 Gender of respondents
Gender Frequency Percent
Male 111 73.5
female 40 26.5
Total 151 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.3.2 Age of Respondents
As it can be revealed on the table below, the majority of respondents, 67 (44.4%) are at the age between 26-30years and 55(36.4%) are the age between31-35years. While, 17 (11.3%) and 11 (7.3%) of respondents are at the age between 20- 25 and 36- 45 years respectively whereas, the remaining 1(.7%) of the respondents are at the age of46- 55 years. This implies that majority of respondents are between the ages of 26- 30 and years in the selected organizations and it seems they are productive age because they are young , so they can bring fighting in the challenges process of good governance in the study area.
Table 8 Age of Respondents
No Age in years Frequency Percent
1 20-25 17 11.3
2 26-30 67 44.4
3 31-35 55 36.4
4 36-45 11 7.3
5 46-55 1 .7
Source: Field Survey, 2018

4.3.3 Work Experience of Respondents
On the other hand, while grouping respondents on their work experience, 9(6.0%) of the respondent have been serving less than 2 years. Whereas 41(27.2%) and 79(52.3%) served between 2 to 5 years and 6 to 10 years respectively. And the remaining 22(14.6%) have served above 10 years. This may indicate that majority 142(94%) of the respondents have more than two years work experiences in the selected public sectors. Thus, the respondents can reveal the existing situation of the present good governance implementation in the study area.
Table 9Experience of respondents
No Experience of respondent Frequency Percentage
1 less than 2 years 9 6.0
2 2-5 years 41 27.26
3 6-10 years 79 52.3
4 above 10 years 22 14.6
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.3.4 Educational Status
In relation to the educational status of respondents, the results were found that 90(59.6%) of respondents had first degree, 50(33.1%) of them had diploma, 10(6.6%) of them had certificate and only 1(.7%) of them had second degree. This implies that the organizations different composition of professionals with their educational status that can reveal the points of the study by understanding the existing situation in the implementation of good governance principle in the study area.
Table 10Educational status of the respondents
No Educational status Frequency Percent
Certificate 10 6.6
Diploma 50 33.1
Degree 90 59.6
Masters 1 .7
Total 151 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.3.5 Marital status of the respondents
Regarding to marital status 55(36.4.9%) of the respondents were unmarried and 88 (58.3%) of them were married while 6 (4.0%) and 2(1.3%) were divorced and widow respectively. From the table blow, it canimpliesthatthe studyinvolve different society with their marital status which is significant in the study of implementation of good governance principle in their use & service delivery.
Table 11Marital status of the respondents
No Marital status
Frequency Percent
Unmarried 55 36.4
Married 88 58.3
Divorced 6 4.0
Other 2 1.3
151 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.4 Challenges in implementation of Good Governance
4.4.1 Factors influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance

Table 12Factors influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance
NO ITEM Rates Frequency Percentage
1 Lack of decision making skill Strongly agree 20 13.2
Agree 102 67.5
Undecided 7 4.6
Disagree 22 14.6
Total 151 100
2 Lack of clear organizational rules and regulation Strongly agree 39 25.8
Agree 102 67.5
undecided 8 5.3
Disagree 2 1.3
Total 151 100
3 Interference by external bodies.
Strongly agree 35 23.2
Agree 94 62.3
undecided 9 6
Disagree 13 8.6
Total 151 100
4 Leader’s commitment problem Strongly agree 25 16.6
Agree 99 65.5
undecided 12 7.9
Disagree 15 9.9
Total 151 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
As it can be seen from Table 12, the majority 122(80.7 of respondents rated as agree and strongly agree respectively with the existence of leadership challenge in related to Lack of decision making skill while 22 (14.6%) respondents disagree on existence of Lack of decision making skill problem. Only 7(4.6%) of respondents were neither agree nor disagree on the existence of Lack of decision making skill as a good governance challenge. This implies that employees in the public organizations tend to believe that Lack of decision making skill of the leaders affect good governance principles. Having decision making skill could improve the leaders’ decision to improve good governance.
Additionally, majority of interviewees and FGD participants confirmed that having decision making skills has an essential role to increase or decrease theleaders’ decision to improve good governance and different activities in their life. However, implementation of decision making skill in the study area is unsatisfactory.
From the second item on the table above Lack of clear organizational rules and regulation were influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance negatively; majority of the respondents 141(93.3), agreed and strongly agreed respectively on the issue that lack of clear organizational rules and regulation. only 2(1.3%) of respondents disagree about the issue while 8 (5.3%) of respondents neither agree nor disagreeon the concern of lack of clear organizational rules and regulation.
Additionally, majority of both the interviewees and FGD participants confirmed thathaving clear organizational rules and regulation is poor and less transparency in displaying rules and regulation for others that exacerbate bad governance because of changing of the leaders from one sectors to another from time to time the leaders do not bring the material to the office after taking any training.Hear in our woreda this is great problem the majority of the intervieweesanswered like this. This implies that that there were no clear organizational rules and regulationwhich play great role in implying good governance principles through decision making process.
Regarding the third item of question on the tableabovewhich is related with interference by external Bodies negatively, majority of the respondents 129(85.5.%) agreed and strongly agreed about interference by external bodiesinfluence leaders’ decision to improve good governance. While 13 disagreed and 9(6%) of respondents (8.6. %) of respondents neither agree nor disagree on the issue.

Additionally, online with this question, all of the response of interviewees FDG confirmed same of the leaders agree with the above response from the respondents while the remains leaders were the opposite that decision by leaders were not influenced by external bodies From this one can conclude there is problem of interference by external bodies which are a challenge for leaders’ decision to improve good governance. Hence, this can contributed for lessleaders’ decision to improve good governance.
Likewise, on the fourth item of question related withLeader’s commitment problem affect negatively; the results were found that 124(82.1%) of respondents were agreed strongly agreed and the rest 15(9.9%) and 12(7.9%) of them remain disagree and undecided respectively. Hence the majority of respondents agreed that Leader’s commitment problem, negatively influence leaders’ decision to improve good governancethis may implies that due to Leader’s commitment problem decision to improve good governance were great problemshown in the public sectors.And also there are huge challenges and hurdles that wait ahead.
The majority of the interviewees and FDGwere agreed with the above opinion they add also some of the challenges are related to rent-seeking, nepotism, leadership incompetency and working system limitations which the government is currently trying harder to reform all.
As it is indicated by various forums of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Front (EPRDF) good governance is a challenge that is encountered at different levels due to capacity constraints among leaders and public servants at different administrative levels. To curb these challenges government launched a number of processes re engineering and training programs to improve skills and ensure appropriate good practices in different government institutions.
The government on its part is deeply evaluating and taking measures to reverse the deep rooted grievances that created massive public dissatisfaction at various levels. It is evaluating its leadership gaps as part of the ongoing deep reform that it has put in place following the 15 years evaluation of the ruling party.
In general Good governance and effective leadership are the essential requirements for an organization to be considered successful in the eyes of all stakeholders in the 21st century. There is a direct link between Good Governance, effective leadership and economic prosperity. The difference between African and Asian countries, many of which started their history as states at the same point in the 1960s, is striking. Lack of effective leadership is the main cause for Africa’s lagging behind from the rest of the world. Governance intertwined with effective leadership is the key variable. Effective leadership and Good Governance is two sides of the same coin. The two have many elements in common. Without an effective leadership we may not envisage Good Governance in its totality. In fact, Good Governance may not be achieved in its totality because of cultural, psychological, social and sociological impacts and differences. Its implementation and perception also varies in line with the level of development and demands of the society. Due to this, the practice shows that very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality.(Herlad News Ensuring good governance 21 Mar 2018 )
4.4.2 Challenges facing the leaders in insuring good governance.
Table 13: Challenges face the leaders insuring good governance.
NO Item Category Frequency Percentage
1 Can you identify what challenges are facing leaders to insure good governance? Yes 148 98.0
No 3 2.0
2 Can you considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good
governance?

Yes 128 84.8
No 23 15.2
3 . Is there a relationship between citizen’s development demand and good governance Yes, they have a direct relationship. 134 88.7
Yes, they have indirect relationship. 14 9.3
No, they do not have any relationship. 3 2.0

4 Poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance.
Strongly agree 92 60.9
Agree 46 30.5
Partially agree 13 8.6
Disagree
5 Customers do not know their responsibility when they want service form Government Offices.
Strongly agree 82 54.3
Agree 45 29.8
Partially agree 23 15.2
Disagree 1 .7

Source: Field Survey, 2018
From the above table13 item 1 the perception of respondents related with challenges are facing leaders to insure good governance? Most of the respondents148 (98 %) replied yes, 3(2.0%) of them replied no. This indicates there is a challenge facing leaders to insure good governance in public organizations.
Similarly the qualitative data, FGD participants also stated their opinion on the issue on the question can you identify what challenges are facing leaders to insure good governance? The respondents said yes, there are so many factors which Poor implementation capacity of government offices, the awareness of the customers and civil servants on the principle of good governance the rent seeking of same employees, resourceproblem, the proper implementation of the principle of good governance They have been shown across groups to be only skilled of minor matters, incompetent and less gifted to create new idea for the about development and service delivery system for the community. This was planned and protected through the socio-cultural factors societies which internalized the idea. This implies that there are challenges of reader to practices the principle of good governance
As it can be seen on the above table 13 of the second item the considered resource problem as one challenge of leaders to insure good governance? 128(84.8%) of respondents are yes considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good governance? 23(15.2. %) of them replied no.
Additionally as translated from Amharic version, FGD discussion participants stated as; considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good governance, lack of budget lack of skilled human resource and other were the challenges.This implies that considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good governance.
Utilization, maintenance and purchasing system is not fair, adequate knowledge and skill in planning and allocating financial resource is observed and Management flows transparency principle in resource utilization is the problem of leader to insure good governance .
As it can be seen on the above table13 of the third items respondents were also asked to give their views regarding there a relationship between citizen’s development demand and good governance; most of the respondents134(88.5 %) are yes, they have a direct relationship. and 14(8.6%) And 3(2%) of respondents replied Yes, they have indirect relationship .and No, they do not have any relationship. This implies that development demand and good governance have a direct relationship to increase to good governance.it is possible to conclude that there were a relationship between citizen’s development demand and good governance; Poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance.

As it can be seen on the above table13 of the forth items the majority of the respondents 138(60.9% strongly agree and agreefor poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders to insure good governance. The remain 13(8.6%)were partially agree so this implies that almost all the respondents were agree on the idea poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance. It shows there is Poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance.
As it can be seen on the above table13 of the fifth items on customers knowledge on responsibility 127 (84.1%) of the respondents replies strongly agree and 45 (29.8%) of the respondents replies agree and 23 (15.2%) and 1(0.7%) of the respondents were partially agree and disagree that customers do not know their responsibility when they want service from government offices. This implies that there was lack of awareness about their responsibility when they want service form government Offices the main challenges of good governance implementation.

As interviewees and focus group discussion except those some respondents who’s their ideas contradicting the ideas of leaders conducted through interview, all the community of our woreda do not now there responsibility when they come to the office to gate the service.

4.4.3 PRACTICES OF THE CORE ELEMENTS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE
It is understood that, good governance is an ideal concept, which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Among its’ characteristics, show the views of respondents in terms of Accountability, Participation, Effectiveness & Efficiency, Equity & Equality, and Transparency.
4.4.4 Accountability
Table 14 Accountability
No Item Frequency/% Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly agree Total
1 Accountability of administration are implemented properly F 69 25 3 23 31 151
% 45.7 16.6 2.0 15.2 20.5 100
2 Adequate knowledge of polices, principles and procedures are well practiced F 80 41 5 12 13 151
% 53.0 27.2 3.3 7.9 8.6 100
3 Citizen charter is properly implemented in the institution. F 64 38 1 19 29 151
% 42.4 25.2 0.7 12.6 19.2 100
4 Budget plan preparation is well managed and it is well implemented F 55 57 1 11 27 151
% 36.4 37.7 0.7 7.3 17.9 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
The result founded from the opinion survey about accountability in the study area is considered to be less.Concerningimplementation of accountability of administration, the table 14 above shows that about 94 (61.6%) of respondents were strongly disagree and disagreed on the accountability,it confirmed that there is no accountability. The remains respondents 31(20.5%) of the respondents were strongly agree, 23(15.2%) of the respondents were agree and 3(1.3%) of the respondents were undecided. From this it can understood the selected public sectors was not made accountability to their responsibility. It can impels that in the study area there have the problems of accountability. Therefore it was challenging to apply good governance.

Regarding to following accountability in line with having adequate knowledge on polices, principles, and procedures as indicated in table 14 above, about 121( 80.2% )of the respondents’ were strongly disagreed and disagree on its well-practiced and the remains 25 (16.5%)were agree and 5(3.3%) of them were undecided on the issues. This result shows that there was awareness gap on polices, principles and procedures of the government and other concerned bodies on polices, principles and procedures of governments.
Proper application of good governance improves the quality of life of citizens, establishes the legitimacy and credibility of institutions, and secures freedom of information and expression. It also strengthens citizen-friendly and citizen-caring administration.
Regarding Citizen Charter is properly implemented in the institution 102(67.6%) of respondents’ strongly disagreed and disagreed. The remains respondents 29(19.2%) of the respondents were strongly agree, 19(12.6%) of them were agree and 1(0.7%) of the respondents were undecided. Even though to measure the performance of public officials as well as to ensure that the standards are met, implementation of accountability in implying citizen charter is poor in the study area. This can imply that in the study area there is the problem of the implementation of citizen charter to confirm both horizontal and vertical accountability in the study area.
Budget plan preparation is well managed and it is well implemented 112(74.1) of the respondents were strongly disagree and disagree and the remains 1(.7%)were undecided,11(7.3%)were agree and 27(17.9%)were strongly agree this implies that there were problem of budget plan preparation In general, accountability is one of the basic elements of good governance in which federal and local government bodies are obliged to report, explain and be answerable for the consequences of decisions they make on behalf of the citizens they serve. However, implementation of accountability is not well practiced in the study area to verify good governance in shabe sombo woreda. Provide services to citizens. Public sector entities are accountable not only for how much they spend but also for the ways they use the resources with which theyhave been entrusted. In addition, they have an over arch mission to serve the public interest in adhering to the requirements of legislation and government policies. This makes it essential that the entire entity can show the integrity of all its actions and has mechanisms in place that encourage and enforce a strong commitment to moral values and legal fulfillment at all levels. Besides, it can imply that in the study area there have problems of accountability in a way that they are not open to the public.

The data which was collected from informants shows that when the public officials make decisions it is not based on the need and interest of public and they don’t want to (even when the people are invited and variety of thoughts are suggested, it is not taken in to consideration for the better implementation of the decisions) the community at the initials stage and when the decision come in to implementation phase a number of grievance encountered in the governing process. Moreover, the clarity and accessibility of newly enacted policies and decisions are near to the ground.

4.4.5 Participation
Figure 1Participation of society in Governance aspects

Source: Field Survey, 2018

Concerning the participation of the society on the aspect of good governance the above figure shows that 134(88.6% )of the respondents strongly disagreed and disagree while the remaining 10(6.6% )strongly agree and 6(4.0%)were agreed on participation of society in the issue of good governance. The left 1(0.7%) of respondent is undecided on the participation of society on the facet of good governance. Since the course of participation is such broad, based up on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively, good governance also requires that civil society to get the opportunity to participate during the formulation of development strategies and that directly affected communities and groups to participate in the design and implementation of programs and projects. However, result above shows that there is high limitation with participation of society in governance aspects to ensure good governance. This shows that there are challenges of good governance in the study selected sectors in the woreda.
Additionally, in an interview and FGD conducted with concerned leaders, majority of them confirmed that failure to involve the community in government aspects like in designing, planning, formulating projects that benefit the community. This makes increase the ignorance of ownership within the community participatory development. Moreover, majority of the FGD participants intelligently argued that leaders failure in being Model the Way by participating the community with their voice and setting an example. This implies that Leaders in the study area are not supposed to stand up for implementation of good governance with participate the community in aspects of governance

Figure 2 Implementation of Participatory Decision Making

Even though participation refers to the process by which all men and women have a voice in decision making either directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests, figure 2 above shows less in its implementation From the total respondents 98 (64.9%) of the them displayed their perception in strongly disagree and disagree on the item implementation of participatory decision making principles of good governance is well. The other 34(22.5%) and 18(11.9%) were strongly agree and agree respectively. One (0.7%) respondent was undecided on the issues. This implies that there is the lack of implementing good governance principles in the public sectors. From this figure it can implied that there have implementation gap on participatory decision making.

Figure 3 community Involvement in Resource Management

Community involvement in resource management is crucial in increasing ownership. From the figure 3 above concerning the Community involvement on resource management at least 104(68.8%) of the respondents were disagree while 46(30.5%) of the respondents are agree and only 1(0.7%) of respondent was undecided on the issues. This reveals that the whole community were not participate on resource management. The above results implied that in the study area there were the need of community based resource management. To bring the sense of ownership participation is necessary, but its implementation is unsatisfactory.

Data gathered from the interviews and FDG shows that as participation is one of the basic indicators of good governance is that decisions are expected to be made in a collective manner and asked how and to what extent is your engagement is powerful in decision making process, they responded the involvement they made in different dialogue and meeting is not a such influential and they are in a position to take than make decisions and there is a strong word but little action as the public officers don’t want to be criticized for the misleading of the public institutions the reason further is because there is a tendency of those who seize public office suppose as they are the complete ownership of better policies and decisions. Accordingly, there have performance gap on partaking decision making in the study area.
4.4.6 Effectiveness and Efficiency
Table 15: Effectiveness and Efficiency
No Item Frequency/% Strongly disagree disagree Undecided agree Strongly agree Total
1 There is frequent follow up in administration area F 93 11 0 24 23 151
% 61.6 7.3 0 15.9 15.2 100
2 Utilization, maintenance and purchasing system is fair F 109 9 0 18 15 151
% 72.2 6.0 0 11.9 9.9 100
3 adequate knowledge and skill in planning and allocating financial resource is observed F 9 118 0 14 10 151
% 6.0 78.1 0 9.3 6.6 100
4 There is a proper complaint handling system for anybody. F 22 79 6 30 14 151
% 14.6 52.3 4.0 19.9 9.3 100
5 Employees Serve the interests of citizens instead of their own personal interests F 82 55 0 7 7 151
% 54.3 36.4 0 4.6 4.6 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
The concept of good governance should ensure efficiency and effectiveness in the use of resources of a nation having not compromise the crucial needs of citizens. It is the extent to which limited human and financial resources are applied without unnecessary, waste, delay or corruptionand it serves the interests of citizensand handling any complaints properly. Table 15 above shows that about 104(68.9%) of respondent disagreed on the item that says there is frequent follow up in administration areawhereas 47(31.1%) of the respondents agree as there is frequent follow up in administration area. From this it can be concluded that there is follow up but still a gap concerning the application of good governance in the study.
An interview and FGD informants added that if society is keeping on participation in different public dealings then surely they can get the expected result and it can increase the communities’ confidence level and helps to know their environment in a better way. The service users can come across many difficulties through which the community comes to distinguish the positives and negatives of decisions. In addition to this, the consistency of decisions made in line with the rule of law and the legal competence of decision making government bodies and individual task is an imperative factor for the legitimacy of the decisions and therefore for the assurance of good governance. However, it failed to realize that participationprovides a platform to test the public ideas and thoughts. From this it can be concluded that there have follow up but still there is a gap concerning the application of good governance in the study.
Concerning material utilization, maintenance and purchasing system about 118 (78.2%) of the respondents were disagreed and 33(21.8%) of the respondents were agreed. This shows that still there was a problem in purchasing system, maintenances and utilization of material. The result implies that there was violation of rules and regulation of government concerning the abovementioned issue.
Concerning budget plan preparation and its management the above table shows that about 127 (84.1%) of the respondents were disagreed whereas 24(15.9%) of the respondents were agreed on the planning and management. This implied that the use of budget was less managed. These shows that still there were knowledge and skill gap among the administrators of the study area. From the above result implicit that to bring wise use of resources the study area needs to fill the gap. Thus, it needs the way of grasping adequate knowledge and skill in planning and allocating financial resources. In addition to this, data collected from informants implies that adequate knowledge on the policies and procedures plays a leading role in enhancing the implementation level of the existed policies and to the extent possible to reframe policies which are not compatible to the current need and interest of the community. Hence, it can be concluded that adequate knowledge can diminish the implementation gap of good governance.

The respondents were also requested to evaluate the current complaint handling system that ensures effectiveness and efficiency of good governance. As Table 15 above shows, from the total respondents 101(66.9%) of the respondents were strongly disagree and disagree respectively on the item that says there was not a proper complaint handling system for anybody. This indicates majority of the respondents have not satisfied with practices of complaint handling system for anybody. Only 30(19.9%) and 14(9.3%) of respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively to the presence of proper complaint handling system for anybody while the rest 6(4%) respondents were undecided whether failure asthere is a proper complaint handling system for anybody or not. This indicates that the start of complaint handling system but it is not effective.
As it can be seen from Table 15 on the last item, the majority 137(90.7%) of respondents rated as strongly disagree and disagree as employees of the study area serve the interests of citizens instead of their own personal interests while 7(4.6%) and 7(4.6%) of respondents were disagree and strongly disagree respectively on the item that says employees Serve the interests of citizens instead of their own personal interests. Here, amazingly the employees believed that their service delivery is not satisfying the interest of the citizensinstead of their own personal interests.
4.4.7 Equity and Equality
Table 16 Equity and Equality
No Item Frequency/% Strongly disagree disagree Undecided agree Strongly agree Total
1 There is proportion of women in key positions in your institution F 35 88 7 17 4 151
% 23.2 58.3 4.6 11.3 2.6 100
2 Bosses are treating every employee in impartial and equal eyes. F 36 89 5 12 9 151
% 23.8 58.9 3.3 7.9 6.0 100
3 Employees treat all citizens equally irrespective of people’ status, social rank, etc F 46 85 2 10 8 151
% 30.5 56.3 1.3 6.6 5.3 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
According to UN-Habitat the sharing of power leads to equity in the access to and use of resources. Women and men must participate as equals in all decision making, priority-setting and resource allocation processes. Equity and equality in shabe sombo woreda seem to be given less attention. As the above 16 shows on the statement that says there is proportion of women in key positions in the institution, only 21 (13.6%) from all respondents are agreed whereas the 123 (81.5%) of the respondents were in disagreement with the respect to proportion of women in key position in the institution was exist. The reaming 7(4.6%) of respondents were undecided on the issues. This implies that women have been given less attention in sharing of power that leads to equity in the institutions.However, majority of themember of the staff feel that the proportion of women assigning in key positions is necessary.

The informants added that as female were more vulnerable part of the society they are not playing their role in governance process of the woreda affairs, the reason they added is because female are underestimated and they are considered as incapable to hold public office and lead different public institutions because of this reason public institutions are not serving all stake holders. Hence, it can be concluded that there have challenges of good governance and with the intention of the level participation of male and female in decision making is not one and the same in the study area Shabe sombo woreda selected public office.
In line with equal treatment to every employees in the organization, 125(81.5%) of respondents disagree and strongly disagree, on the item bosses are treating every employee in impartial and equal eyes while only 21(13.9%) of respondents were in agreement on the item and 5(3.3%) were undecided. This indicates that bosses are not treating every employee in impartial and equal eyes.
In the above tables the third items the response of the respondents 131 (86.8%) were strongly disagree and 46 (30.5%) of the respondents were disagree as Employees treat all citizens equally irrespective of people’ status, social rank, etc and the others respondents were18 (11.9%) dis agree and 2(1.3%) were undecided. This implies that employees do not treat all citizens equally irrespective of people status, social rank, etc.
4.4.8 Transparency

Table 17 Transparency
Item Frequency/% Strongly disagree disagree Undecided agree Strongly agree Total
1 Governing bodies have transparency F 54 78 5 10 4 151
% 35.8 51.7 3.3 6.6 2.6 100
2 Management flows transparency principle in resource utilization F 26 96 3 19 7 151
% 17.2 63.6 2.0 12.6 4.6 100
3 Stake holders are participating in budget planning F 51 80 9 8 3 151
% 33.8 53.0 6.0 5.3 2.0 100

Concerning transparency the table, 17 above shows that about 54 (35.8%) of respondents were strongly disagree and 132(86.5%) of respondents were disagree while only 10(6.6) of respondent agree and 4(2.6%) of the respondents were strongly agree on the item says Governing bodies have transparency and the left 5(3.3%) of respondents’ undecided on the issues. This confirmed that in the study area there is the problem of the transparency of governing bodies.
Management flows transparency principle in resource utilization 122(80.8%) of respondents’ disagreed and strongly disagreed while7 (4.7%) and 19(12.6%) of the respondents strongly agreed and agreed respectively. So from this the researcher concludes that there is a problem in resource utilization in selected public sectors.
Concerning Stake holders are participating in budget planning 131 (86.8%) of the respondents were Strongly disagree and disagree and 9 (6.0%) of the respondents were undecided and 8(5.3%) and 3(2.0%) of the respondents were Strongly agree and of the respondents were Strongly agree this implies that there were the problem of Stake holders are participating in budget planning in the study area.
Transparency equally means the right of citizens to be informed on the entire decision making process. Over the last fifteen years, good governance has become a major area of focus by the Ethiopian government as it is one of the tools to realize nation’s development goals.
4.4.9 Opportunities to improve effective Good Governance
Table 18 Opportunities to improve effective Good Governance
No
ITEMS Yes/No frequency Percent (%)
12 Can you identify an opportunities in your locality which helps the sector
to improve effective governance?.
Yes 142 94.0
No 9 6.0
Total 151 100

Source: Field Survey, 2018
From the tables above the researcher observed 142(94.0%) of the respondents says yes to the item that request there is an opportunities to improve effective governance in the public sectors in the study area. This implies there so many opportunities to improve effective governance. There are many opportunities in the public sectors to contribute to the success and realization of good governance..in the above table 18 with regard to the question asked in relation to the opportunities in the public sectors s of the woreda for the success and realization of good governance, the formation collected through interviews and discussions also supports the information provided above. According to their views, it is possible to deduce that the greatest concern given for good governance by the government at the country level, strong implementation of the tools of management like BPR and BSC, determination of leadership in taking initiation to realize the principles of good governance. And formation of different groupings and its effective implementation in the process of providing efficient and effective services to the customers are the major opportunities that can effectively be used by the
municipalities to the realization and success of good governance. Identifying the major challenges of good governance and suggesting solutions to cure these challenges is very important in deepening the principles and providing efficient and effective services to the customers and stakeholders of public sectors. Concerning suggesting solutions to the major challenges of good governance, particularly, to the success of good governance in the future in the public sectors of the study area have identified providing series of trainings on the issues of good governance to the officials and the employees of the public sectors. Commitment from the leadership, creating awareness about good governance to the public sectors service users is needed in order to enable them to challenge in the absence of good organizational governance, filling positions with qualified and skilled man power as important solutions. The building institutional capacity of the public sectors, establishing institutional framework for good governance implementation follow up, carrying out various activities of the public sectors benchmarking or centering the principles of good governance, and having published performance standards and manuals of good governance are some of the solutions to the challenges of good governance. Therefore, the overall conclusion is that providing series of trainings on the issues of good governance to the officials and employees of the public sectors , commitment from the leadership, creating awareness on good governance to the public sectors employees and service users in order to enable them to challenge in the absence of good organization governance, and filling positions with qualified and skilled man power are identified as major solutions to the challenges of good governance in the future public sectors so as to provide efficient and effective public services.

CHAPTER FIVE
5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In this part of the paper findings of the research had briefly summarized, more condensed and Comprehensive statements had offered in the form of conclusions and recommendations.
5.1 Summary of the major findings
The main purpose of this study was to investigate challenges of good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda selected public office. More specifically the study had designed to answer the following research questions: What is the current state of application good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda selected public office? What are the main challenges (factors) that constrained society to get and participate in good governance? , What are opportunities that help to create awareness on significance and effect of good governance in Woreda? In order to find out answer for the above research questions the study has used questionnaires and interview as the main data gathering tools also document analysis have been used as supplementary instruments to generate additional information. The collected data were analyzed using simple statistical technique such as percentage, charts, and tables. The major findings of such analysis were briefly summarized as flow:-
Challenges facing the leaders in insuring good governance
Concerning factors influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance hence the majority122 (80.7%) of the respondents agreed and strongly agree that Leader’s lack of decision making skill has own problem and it negatively influences leaders’ decision to improve good governance
Majority141(93.3%) of respondents and both the interviewees and FGD participants confirmed that having clear organizational rules and regulation is poor and less transparency in displaying rules and regulation for others that exacerbate bad governance.,Majority129(85.5%)of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed about interference by external bodies influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance. The majority124 (82.1%) of the respondents were strongly agree and agree on the leaders commitment to insure good governance in public sectors.
The majority134(88.8%) of respondents say, yes, that development demand and good governance have direct relationship to increase to good governance, The majority138(91.4%) of respondents say, Poor implementation capacity of government offices and less awareness Customers were challenges are facing the leaders in insuring good governance 127(84.2%)of the respondents were respondents agreed and strongly agreed.
What are the challenges of good governance principles in implementation?
Regarding the accountability for questions (1, 2, 3,4in table 14) the majority of respondents were strongly disagree and disagreed on the accountability, it confirmed that there is no accountability.
Concerning the participation the majority of the respondents on questions (1, 2, 3 of the above figures) were strongly disagree and disagree.
Regarding the effectiveness and efficiency the majority of the respondents on question number 1,2,3,4,5 in the table 15 above are strongly disagree and disagree.
Regarding the equity and equality questions (1, 2, 3, in the table16) the majority of the respondents were in disagreement with the respect, to proportion of women in key position in the institution was exist, In line with equal treatment to every employees in the organization, on the item bosses are treating every employee in impartial and equal eyes as Employees treat all citizens equally irrespective of people’ status, social rank, etc
,In the study area there is the problem of the transparency of governing bodies, the majority of respondents were strongly disagree and disagree for the questions (1,2,3 in table 17). While management flow transparency principle in resource utilization, Concerning Stake holders are participating in budget planning, the Stakeholders are not participating in budget planning.
What opportunities are there to improve effective governance?
Thos, the majority of the respondents answer yes there is so many opportunities it is possible to deduce that the greatest concern given for good governance by the government at the country level, strong implementation of the tools of management like BPR and BSC, determination of leadership in taking initiation to realize the principles of good governance, and formation of different groupings and its effective implementation in the process of providing efficient and effective services to the customers are the major opportunities that can effectively be used by the public sectors in the woreda to the realization and success of good governance.
5.2 CONCLUSION
Based on the result of this study, institutions assessed have not been found perfectly effective in any of the five good governance indicators used in the study. Instead they were found effective in some of the sub indices of the indicators and ineffective in some other sub indices of the indicators. Therefore in order to avoid generalization by simply using indicators for conclusion, the conclusion of the study has been conducted by focusing on specific sub indices of the indicators used in the study. In addition, in the conclusion and recommendation focus has given for the weak side of institutions. As they are directly representing the society, Civil Society and Community Based Organizations have strong contributions in building of good governance. However, poor achievements were observed on the part of institutions in accommodating them. This greatly affects the overall performance of the institutions and led them to score weak institutional achievements.
In principles good governance organization management needs to be open for public review and evaluation. If the institutions fear public review and evaluation of their administration, by no means they could not be said transparent. For a service provider institution making a survey of customer satisfaction level must be one of the first simple activities, failed to do this lead the failure of the organization as an institution and the institution was not the mechanism to know its failures and success as far as the service it provides to the society. Customers having not giving immediate solutions for their complaints, blame not only the institution but the overall system of the government. It also results the loss of customers and the delay of solution led service users to find solution abnormally such as through bribery for good governance to be occurrence in public institutions total staffs of the institutions should have awareness about good governance this need training.
Institutions need to be aware of concerning their efficiency in providing services so as to increase degree of confidence (trust) of the users. The services being totally independent from political influence encourage users and avoid the sense of discrimination among service users. Politically biased institutions produces conflict and hinder the building of good governance in institutions.
One the most important things that institutions expected to achieve is the establishment of procedures to follow up the implementation of anti corruption policy, what should not be forgotten in the process of achieving good governance in public institutions are the case of corruption. The most dangerous enemy of building democratic governance is corruption.
As the same time the public has to have the freedom of reviewing the budget of institutions. Both the society and community based organizations should have accesses in reviewing budgets of the public institutions. There has to have mechanisms in public institutions which enabled them to review budgets. Corruption as endemic enemy for social, economical and political of any country especial attentions should be given to it. As it strongly deters institutional performance capacity public institutions needs to cautious in eliminating from institutions.
Transparently informing service users whenever changes are going too made in services provisions. This enables service users to adjust themselves on time and avoid later confusions. And do not open room for vicious illegal traders.
Because of the cultural and historical influence that had laid up on them women parts of the population are not in offices and positions as they would have to been and it becomes impossible for a country to bring change and development without active participation of half of the part of the total population of the country. In general absence of giving training and awareness creation of officials and public institution employees through training, workshops and seminars, through pamphlets, journals and regional Medias, create the attitude of low value for good governance both among the civil servants and the community. They consider good governance as an idea that much not necessary for poverty reduction and sustainable development.
As far as equity and equality concerned the research used only one sub indicator, that was proportion of women in key position based the finding the proportion of women in key position accounted below 10%. Due to this institutions in general concluded poor in equity and equality. The possible measures that should be taken for the challenges of good governance and the possible outcomes of the absence or lack of good governance were gathered.
In addition follow up mechanisms concerning implementation of good governance in institutions have great role if they are established by institutions. Creating awareness about good governance especially using regional Medias and let them struggle the absence of good governance in public institutions. Lastly, institutional mechanisms should be established for discussion with the society regarding good governances. The consequent results of poor governance would probably be decrease institutional responsibility discharging capacity, damage society (customers) living and hinders government and it blocks expansion of investments.
Thus, as achieving good governance is one of the main agendas of Ethiopia, different efforts on the part of the government has been conducted recognizing that achieving good governance both at the national and local level directly or indirectly implies economic development and peace and stability .Thus this paper tried to show how good governance is widespread in public sectors in light of the five core good governance principles; participation, effectiveness and efficiency, transparency, accountability, and equity and equality.
In general those described successes and failures of public institutions based on the five good governance indicators have their own positive and negative effects. Successes described by the study promote institutional performances, ensure productivity of institutions creates benefit for the society and facilitates the building of good governance in public institutions. Whereas those failures described by the research strongly affects institutional performance, productivity, and the process of building good governance. To sum, for a country striving to achieve the millennium development goals, the contribution of public institutions played crucial role. For institutions to contribute their parts good governance should one of the principal frameworks in all of their activities.

5.3 RECOMMONDATION
Based on the identified findings, the following possible recommendations may be made for better working of the public sectors in Shabe Sombo woreda
? Since the present condition of good governance is not satisfactory; the public sectors in Shabe Sombo woreda have to establish a separate responsibility that provides training on the issues of good governance.
? In addition, they have to identify the common challenges of good governance in cooperation with their stakeholders. This would help in avoiding the misuse of the scarce human, financial, and material resources and enables to deliver efficient and effective municipal services to the customers. Moreover, it was be better to promote accountability, transparency, participation, efficiency, effectiveness and rule of laws in the public sectors.
? This also enables the public sectors to achieve the objectives and goals for which they are established.

? Based on the findings of the study, with regard to the measures that have to be taken to solve the challenges of good governance, the researcher recommends that the public sectors have to provide series of trainings to the officials, employees and the community to solve the major challenges of good governance related with the attitude of the service providers in the public sectors.
? These trainings must also focus on the issues like principles of good governance; corruption thinking and its effect; and accountability and transparency participation and effectiveness and efficiency issues just to mention few. This, on the other hand, helps the public sector in familiarizing their employees with the concepts, issues and principles of good governance and also contributes to a large extent, to address and solve the major challenges of good governance.
? Properly identifying and wisely using opportunities in the process of exercising good governance is very crucial in providing efficient service to the customers. Therefore, it is recommended that the leadership of the public sectors have to identify the opportunities in their public sector, properly use the greatest attention given to ensure good governance at the country level, work hard, and properly evaluate its progress to strengthen the implementation of the tools of management. The new blooded leadership of the zonal administration has to make a serious follow up, establish proper linkage and also provide adequate support to the municipalities so as to make them strong enough.
? Commitment from the leadership of the public sector, creating awareness about good governance to the civil service providers and users, filling positions with qualified and skilled human power were found very important solutions in the effort to solve the challenges of good governance in the public sectors.
? Implement the policy of citizen charter where specify the specific service provided citizens with in specified time frame failure of officials to deliver service within specified time should be dealt seriously unaccountable and unethical behaviors, it too and should be checked and control properly to make it happened, ombudsman, ant-corruption commission and other similar institutions should be strengthen with more powers and activated. These efforts may have positive impacts towards promoting good governance.
.
In general for governance not to be poor in public institutions training and awareness creation of officials and public institution employees through training, workshops and seminars, through pamphlets, journals and regional Medias is necessary. In addition follow up mechanisms concerning implementation of good governance in institutions have great role if they are established by institutions. Creating awareness about good governance especially using regional Medias and let them struggle the absence of good governance in public institutions. Lastly, institutional mechanisms should be established for discussion with the society regarding good governances. Having not ensuring what are described above could be causes for poor. The consequent results of poor governance would probably be decrease institutional responsibility discharging capacity, damage customers (society) living and hinders government and it blocks expansion of investments.

APPENDIX
ETHIOPIAN CIVIL SERVICE UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE
INSTITUTE OF LEADERSHIP AND GOOD GOVERNANCE
The purpose of this questionnaire is to gather data pertinent to identify challenges of leadership in insuring good governance. The result of the study was be used only for academic purpose. Thus, you are kindly requested to show your cooperation by giving relevant and reliable information for the given interviews.
Thank you in advance for your cooperation!
I Respondents personal information
Sex: 1) Male 2) Female
Age: 1) 20-25 years 2) 26-30 years 3) 31-35 years 4) 36-45 years
5) 46-55 years 6) 56-65 years

Working experience at government office
1) Less than two years 2) 2-5 years 3) 6-10 years 4) above 10 years
What is your education level?
1) Certificate 2) Diploma 3) Degree 4) Masters and above
Your marital states
1) Single 2) Married 3) Divorced 4) Others

I. Questions to identify what factors influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance.
Which of the following was be considered as factors which can influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance? Explain your level of agreement by putting “?” mark in front of each item under the following four:-
1) Disagree 2) Partially Agree 3) Agree 4) strongly agree
No. Questions 4 3 2 1
1 Lack of decision making skill
2 Lack of clear organizational rules and regulation.
3 Interference by external bodies.
4 Leader’s commitment problem.

II. Questions to identify what challenges are facing the leaders in insuring good governance.
5. Can you identify what challenges are facing leaders to insure good governance?
1) Yes
2.) No
If your answer is yes, list those challenges you know on the space provided below.
———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————–
6. Can you considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good
governance?
A. Yes B. No
If your answer is no, justify your reason on the space provided below?
———————————————————————————————————
———————————————————————————————————
———————————————————————————————————
———————————————————————————————————
———————————————————————————————————-
———————————————————————————————————
7. Is there a relationship between citizen’s development demand and good governance?
A). Yes, they have a direct relationship.
B). Yes, they have indirect relationship.
C). No, they do not have any relationship.
D). I do not know.

8. Poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one
challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance.
A) Strongly agree. B) Agree. C) Partially agree. D) Disagree.
9. Customers do not know their responsibility when they want services form Government
Offices.
A) Strongly agree. B) Agree. C) Partially agree. D) Disagree.
III. Questions to identify what opportunities are there in the sector to improve effective governance.
10. Can you identify an opportunities in your locality which helps the sector
to improve effective governance. 1) Yes 2) No
If your answer is yes, please least those opportunities on the space provided below.
————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
IV. Rating scale in significance and challenge of good governance. Indicate the degree
of agreement and disagreement by putting “X” mark in front of each item under the following five:-
No Item Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided agree Strongly agree
1 Accountability of administration are implemented properly
2 Adequate knowledge of polices, principles and procedures are well practiced
3 Citizen charter is properly implemented in the institution.

4 Budget plan preparation is well managed and it is well implemented

5 There is frequent follow up in administration area

6 Utilization, maintenance and purchasing system is fair

7 adequate knowledge and skill in planning and allocating financial resource is observed

8 There is a proper complaint handling system for anybody.

9 Employees Serve the interests of citizens instead of their own personal interests

10 There is proportion of women in key positions in your institution

11 Bosses are treating every employee in impartial and equal eyes.

12 Employees treat all citizens equally irrespective of people’ status, social rank, etc

13 Governing bodies have transparency
14 Management flows transparency principle in resource utilization
15 Stake holders are participating in budget planning
16 Participation of society in Governance aspects
17 Implementation of Participatory Decision Making
18 community Involvement in Resource Management
Questionnaire of Service User Respondent (focus group)
The objective of this research is to assess how prevalent is good governance in public
institutions. The information obtained wasbe confidential. Your responses are of high
value for research purposes and may be important in prescribing policies to improve
governance in public institutions.
1. Does the institution prepare community forum in order to enable the community to discuss issue that mater them?
2. Does the institution encourage you to participate in decision making process that concerns the service user/community?
3. Do you (the community) ever consulted by the institution before a program or policy is implemented that concerns you?
4. Do you have ever invited to evaluate the service provider institution management?
5. Can you easily provide your suggestions, questions, comments and complaints for your service provider institution?
6. Have you ever provides complains in a service provider institution
7. How much do you think that the public services are independent from political interference?
8. Does the service provider institution have a special service delivery mechanism for women and the disadvantaged group?
9. Do the community/ service users have ever got the chance to review the budget of your service provider institution?

Appendix two
Interview guide line for leaders of Selected public sectors of Shabe Sombo of woreda office.
Part I: General information and personal data
Name of office you currently work in————
Data of interview ——————————
a) sex———— b) age—————– c) qualification———————
d) experience as civil servant——————As leader——————-
e) Present positions————
Part II: interview questions
1. What are the basic features of good governance in the sector?
2. What is the role of concerned bodies to implement good governance in the sector?
3. Is there clear demarcation of power and function between the sector and kebeles?
4. Who play dominant role in agenda setting and budget allocation in the sector?
5. Is there check and balance mechanisms amongst government organs in the sector?
6. What are the major challenges of good governance in the sector?
7. Do the residents of the sector participate in political, economical, and social issues?
8. What are the mechanisms to exercise transparency and accountability of the
executives and civil servants?
9. Is there any feedback mechanism to receive comments from the citizens regarding
service delivery?
10. What must be done to improve good governance in the sector? What are the means to tackle the problem of good governance?
Source: It is adapted from the research of MulatChaniylew.

COLLEGE OF LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE
INSTITUTE OF LEADERSHIP AND GOOD GOVERNANCE

The Challenges of Good Governance in Selected Public Sector: In Case of Shabe Sombo Woreda Jimma Zone Oromia Regional State Ethiopia

By
Ashireka Aba Diga
ECSU1600728

Advisor: Prof. Krishna Shekhar

A Thesis Submitted to the Institute of Leadership and Good Governance Masters Program, Ethiopian Civil Service University, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Institute of Leadership and Good Governance

May, 2018
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Abstract
By understood its desperate significance and the countless efforts of the government in ensuing good governance this study stands to assess governance in public institutions making its topic of the challenges of good governance in public institutions.’ The main objective of the study is assessing thechallenges of good governance in selected public sector and the research was conducted on 10 public sectors which were purposefully selected. In Shabe Sombo woreda selected public office. The study employed qualitative and quantitative research methodology and data was collected through questionnaire method and the data obtained both from the leaders of the sectors public institution employees and service users together with the information obtained through interview fromleaders of the sectors. The descriptive analysis made exposed that institutions are on the way striving to achieve governance practically in their institutions. Based on the analysis conducted using five core elements of good governance namely accountability, transparency, equity and equality, effectiveness and efficiency and participation different successes and failures were observed. The necessity of engaging the society in full scale participation, the need for trainings, workshop, seminars, on good governance, increasing implementing capacity of the institutions, the necessity of using different mass medias including the regional mass medias for good governance issues.

Table of Contents
Abstract i
CHAPTER ONE 2-1
2 INTRODUCTION 2-1
2.1 General background of the study 2-1
2.2 Statement of the problem 2-4
2.3 Objectives 2-6
General objective 2-7
Specific objectives 2-7
2.4 Research Questions 2-7
2.5 Significance of the study 2-7
2.6 Scope of the study 2-8
2.7 Limitation of the study 2-8
2.8 Operational definitions of key terms 2-9
CHAPTER- TWO 2-11
3 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 3-11
3.1 Theoretical framework of the study 3-11
3.1.1 Governance and Government 3-11
3.1.2 Concept of Good Governance 3-12
3.1.3 Concept of Development 3-14
3.1.4 Good governance assessment models 3-14
3.1.5 Relationship between People’s Participation and Good Governance 3-16
3.1.6 Models of Good Governance on the Basis of Participation Levels 3-17
3.1.7 Core elements of good governance 3-21
3.2 Conceptual frame work of the study 3-24
CHAPTER- THREE 3-26
4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES 4-26
4.1 Introduction 4-26
4.2 Description of the study Area 4-26
Research design 4-26
4.3 Research Approach 4-27
4.4 Population and Sampling Techniques 4-27
4.4.1 Target Population 4-28
4.4.2 Sample Frame 4-28
4.4.3 Sample unit 4-28
4.4.4 Sample Size 4-29
4.4.5 Sampling technique 4-31
4.4.6 Sampling design 33
4.4.7 Data collection techniques 33
Primary data sources 33
Secondary data source 34
4.4.8 Data collection instrument 34
4.4.9 Method of Data Analysis 34
4.5 Ethical Consideration 35
CHAPTER FOUR 36
5 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 36
5.1 Introduction 36
5.2 Response Rate 36
5.3 Validity ; Reliability of the Instrument 36
5.4 Demographic Profile of the Respondents 37
5.4.1 Gender of Respondents 37
5.4.2 Age of Respondents 37
5.4.3 Work Experience of Respondents 38
5.4.4 Educational Status 38
5.4.5 Marital status of the respondents 38
5.5 Challenges in implementation of Good Governance 39
5.5.1 Factors influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance 39
21 Mar 2018 Editorial-View-Point) 41
5.5.2 Challenges facing the leaders in insuring good governance. 41
5.6 Practices of the core elements of Good Governance 43
5.6.1 Accountability 43
5.6.2 Participation 45
5.6.3 Effectiveness and Efficiency 47
5.6.4 Equity and Equality 48
5.6.5 Transparency 49
5.7 Opportunities to improve effective Good Governance 50
6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 52
6.1 Summary of the major findings 52
6.2 CONCLUSION 54
6.3 RECOMMONDATION 55

Above all would like to praise to praise Allah, who enabled me to succeed in my work. .Next to Allah I am very much grateful

CHAPTER ONE
1 INTRODUCTION
Good governance is said to be the basis of development in any democratic form of
government. The study of sector governance is very important to ensure Good governance in the woreda. Good governance was one of the best elements of the democracy in any country .This study was concerned on the challenges of good governance in shabe sombo selected sector .In this Chapter the general background, statement of the problems, the research questions, objective of the study, significance of the study, the scope of the study, and limitation of the study .
1.1 General background of the study
Good governance related to leadership management and organization, which is leading of
economy on how to coordinate and mobilize the public at large the private sector and
nongovernmental organization for faster and continued growth. This is done using
increasing efficiency and manufacture of different sectors such aseducationhealth farming, mining, and mobilization of local activities and the others too. Proper application of Good
governance get better the quality of life of citizen, enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of
administration, create the legality and sincerity of institutions, secure freedom of
information and expression, provide citizen-friendly and citizen-caring administration.
Furthermore, it ensure accountability, using information and technology based service to
improve citizen government interface, improve the productivity of employs; and promote
organizational pluralism-state, market and civil society organization for governance. Good
governance includes capacity to formulate and implement sound policies by the government with due respect for citizens. From this framework, governance can be construed as consisting of six different elements. These are (1) Voice and accountability, which include civil liberties and freedom of the press, (2) Political stability, (3) Government effectiveness, which includes the
quality of policymaking and public service delivery (4) Quality of regulation, (5) Rule of law,
which includes protection of poverty rights and an independent judiciary, and (6)Control of
corruption Governance is the processes of decision making and implementing it. (Mercy Corps

Colombia, 2010) Now a day the issue of governance is questioned everywhere at public sector service delivery as well as private sector service delivery. According the implementation of governance it is classified as good governance and bad governance. (Mercy Corps. Colombia, 2010)
In a democratic government, government holds its power by election. Citizens elected their government by measuring the importance of its public policy whether it is appropriate to serve them or not. Good governance is the processes of decision making to implement governmental policies effectively and efficiently. The democratic government must insure that the principles of good governance such as rule of law, responsiveness, equity and inclusiveness, effectiveness and efficiency, transparency, accountability, participation. If, those of good governance principles violated bad governance was happen. (IFAD, September 1999)
The Horne of Africa was part of the continent which was in civil war for long period of time.
For long period of time the governments of those nations cannot ensure good governance. Some of the nations like Somalia were lived without government for the last two decades. Even though the nations try to create peaceful nation the neighboring countries support were limited. Sometimesthe neighboring nations are interfere weak nations due to their warier behavior. Because of this reason the region is still in sever poor condition now a day.
Ethiopia is one of the horns of Africa nation. And the nations pass several histories to get good government. For the last 25 years the EPRDF government secured the Peace of the nation. Besides the Peace kipping of the nation the country helps her neighboring countries for their Peace and this is unusual action through the history of the region. The country is also in great progress in developing Democracy and development. The nation develops different strategies to insure good governance. The implementation of good governance shows seems good result.
As the main development agenda of Ethiopian poverty eradication all development policies and strategies are there for geared towards this end effective implementation of this policies and
strategies are integrated and comprehensive manner of varies level of government
administration. It needs good governance, which is strategic direction of domestic governance in the country are to adopt infancy and enforces lows that support democracy and good governance conducts free fair and democratic election, ensure the human right of all citizens. To bring all economic and political development community had to respecting construction and democratic values. These forces government to give guarantee for the people are well-respected
consolidation accountability and financial system. Good governance plays key role in realizing
governments objectives eradicating poverty specially food shortage problem in short term,
backwardness of domestic economic sector, traditional use of land and animal husbandry, poor
use labor power too comparing of global agricultural practice chemical fertilizers and improved
seed at the national level, increase land productivity not only dependent of yearly rain water and ideal weather .As it is indicated in five years plan of growth and transformation (2010/11-2010/15) PASDEP ,challenges of good governance in different levels encounters when implementation where capacity constraints among leaders and public servants at different administrative levels. To reduce challenges government launched a number of process reengineering and training programs to improve skills and ensure appropriate implication capacity fanatical mobilization inflation problem, rain dependency, under performance of industrial sector and good practices. According to PASDEP leadership management and organization implement mobilization of domestic resource, good governance industrialization and social sector of instructor implement is taken as solution in a countries political and economic growth and stability for this and others some basic question to be answered.
The Oromia Regional state is one of among the nine regional states of the FDRE Government. Similar to the FDRE Government the Oromia regional state also implemented different reforms to improve good governance in its own region. In 1999 E.C the Oromia regional state developed good governance package. The package includes four programs such as decentralized administration, civil service improvement program, justice system improvement programs and information communication technology program. Those programs were implemented through the region until 1999 E.C and there was a great improvement on the governance from time to time. Even though there was progress, still now the regional government declares that lack of good governance is the challenges of the leadership. Because of this reasons the region forms a task force which follows the good governance performance activities. This task force engaged in its activity starting from 2003 E.C.
Shabe Sombo woreda is one of 21woredas of Jimma zone which is located about 445 kilometers away from Addis Ababa to the Western of the country from center. It is relatively far away from the center. It is my observation that the level of awareness about good governance is law. How, the society participate on good governance is passive and those of them who exercise political power are considered as deviants in the Woreda. In the area like other Ethiopian some society, goals, and ideologies were assumed to be only for the leading powers that Administrative zone, observed some over well known problems. One of them is low participation of society in good governance related facts and outlook on leadership roles which is initiated to undertake the study in the area. Thus, the study was tries to explore the challenges of good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda in selected public sector
The shabe sombo the public sector took different reform to enhance good governance in the woreda for the last 12 years. The issues of good governance now a day also raised by the community repeatedly. Due to this reason the researcher questioned to know the challenges of good governance in shabe sombo public sector and decided to write her research paper on the assessment of the challenges of good governance. I hope my MA research paper may help my woreda to know the basic challenges of leadership and to respond for those of challenges appropriately.
1.2 Statement of the problem
As it is indicated in five years plan of growth and transformation (2010/11-2010/15) Plan for Accelerated Progress and Sustainable Development to End poverty (PASDEP), challenges of good governance in different levels encounters during the implementation where capacity constraints among leaders and public servants at different administrative levels. Therefore, in order to curb challenges government launched a number of process reengineering and training programs to improve skills and ensure appropriate policy implementation and implication capacity fanatical mobilization inflation problem, rain dependency, under performance of industrial sector and good practices. Several studies have been conducted on good governance among which significance of good governance and its challenges in Ethiopia and the findings show that lack of knowledge and skill of the officers on right implementation of good governance has impact on societal outlook, which constrains playing part in governance. To curb challenges, Ethiopian government has taken number of measures that could be considered as opportunities. This includes adaption of FDRE constitution, amendment of domestic laws, development plan that enhances the development of country in many accesses that helps society participate on government and related commitments of government (Gizaw,2014).challenges and opportunities of good governance in Ghana and the findings shown that until recently governance is characterized by poor institutional performance, weak parliament, and lack of independence of the judiciary, corrupt police force, political instability, abuse and misuse of political offices, insufficient budgetary accountability, and lack of respect for the rule of law and human rights. However, since around 1990s there observed significant improvement in respect to good governance in Ghana pertinent to performance of the institutions (Abrham, 2014).
The existence of poor responsiveness, lack of awareness about the management, lack of democracy, corruption, poor sense of ownership, double responsibility and lack of members’ awareness were found to be the reasons for weak performance. Besides, corruption and rent seeking behavior and activities, negligence by officials and employees of the public sectors, lagging of response, lack of mechanism to askpublic sectors about its deeds and officials run for getting political loyalty from their bosses to either sustain their power or to upgrade their position rather work to solve residents’ problem, lack of financial, material and human resources, lack of institutional capacity are the major challenges (Dinka, 2016).
According to Sebudubudu (2010) on his study entitled ‘the impact of good governance on development and poverty’ argues that good governance in Botswana facilitated development and impacted positively on poverty reduction and political stability, to this extent, this has been a responsive democracy. It is the researcher observation that the echelon of attentiveness about leadership of how and when the society involving on good governance is low down and those who exercise political power are considered as deviants in the city administration that the policies and ideologies were assumed to be only the leading powers to the administrative zone was observed as an overwhelming problem. Among the many, the public official are not accountable for the decision they made, slight contribution of society in the decision making process that the communities are decision taker rather than decision maker, the contentment level of services user is too stumpy and not considered as influential to bring an effective governance related facts and outlook of leadership roles which is initiated to undertake a research in the study area. Good governance is an ideal in which political processes translate the way of the people into public policies and establish the rules that efficiently and effectively deliver services to all members of society. The development literature on governance identifies a number of characteristics of good governance, including the rule of law, transparency, accountability, efficiency and effectiveness, participation and responsiveness. These characteristics are easily applied to assess a country’s quality of governance in the public sector. In Ethiopia the concept and the practice of good governance is a new phenomenon.
The government began to implement it due to service delivery dissatisfaction on the part
of the country and growing consensus that it is the root cause of all round crises in the
country. The Shabe Sombo woreda has been faced several good governance problems that come due to limited budget and lack of commitment lack of decision making skill interference of external body in various governmental sectors the applications are different in the study area. The gap of capacity building and ill commitment tends to reduce the effectiveness of governmental institutions. The lack of executive’s educational qualification, poor management, poor facilities, limited budget, and the absence of strategically oriented training, the implementation of policy rule and regulation of the sectors could be the major cause of challenge of poor government in the woreda.
This paper discusses the major challenges facing shabe sombo public sector to day, identifies governance problems that affect the capacity of the sector to meet those challenges, assesses international experience with improving governance in public institution and its effects on its institutional out comes, and presents analytic tools which are helpful for evaluating the governance in public institution and progress towards good governance.
The researcher observes that the level of awareness about good governance is law in the study area. How, the society participate in good governance is passive and those of them who exercise political power are considered as deviants in the Worada. In the area like other woredasome society goals and ideologies are assumed to be only for the leading powers to do all activates. The woreda selected public sectors observed some over well-known problems. One of them is low participation of society in good governance related facts and outlook on leadership roles which is initiated to undertake the study in the area. Thus, the study tries to describe the challenges of good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda in public institution. Purpose of the study is to assess good governance concern of local governments by that to enhance good governance awareness level of leaders, employees and community at the woreda level.

1.3 Objectives
General Objective
? The main objective of this research paper is to assess the challenges of good governance in shabe sombo public institution. .
Specific Objectives
? To assess the challenge of good governance principles and practices during implementation in shabe sombo woreda selected public institution
? To identify opportunities that may enhance effective governance in Shabe Sombo woreda selected public institution.
? To assess the status of good governance application in Shabe Sombo woreda in selected Public sector
1.4 Research Questions
This research wasaddress the following questions:
? What are the challenges of good governance principles in implementation?
? What opportunities are there to improve effective governance?
? What is the status of governance in Shabe Sombo woreda in selected Public sector
1.5 Significance of the study
The possible outcome of this study may provide and give broad information and real data about the topic gathered from reliable sources. Thus, it may have a helpful contribution to the presenting literature and research studies conducted around the area. Moreover, the research could discuss in detail the evaluation of the challenges of good governance. This study may provide in detail information on the factors which influence leaders’ decision in improving good governance. As well as it identifies the possible opportunities of leaders to build effective leadership. .
? To provide valuable information to information seekers regarding the major challenges of good governance in the selected public sectors of the study area.
? The study may serve as a stepping stone for others who want to pursue further study on similar or the same topic in the area.
? . To provide an input to authorities of theselected public sectors of the study area and decision makers for the future actions.
1.6 Scope of the Study
Due to time and resource constraints, the research did not based on comprehensive study of all challenges that society is comforting in the contemporary world. It was not also including all the sectors in shabe sombo woredaIt was not also include all the principle of good governance. Thestudy was confined to the assessment of that challenge and opportunities of good governance. Woreda selected public sector in Jimma zone of oromia region. The study was undertook different stockholders such as Shabe Sombo woreda cabinets, focus on selected different sector employees and public sector stockholders. Therefore, any term found in the study wasinterpret in relation to good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda.
1.7 Limitation of the study
As the concept of governance is multidimensional that includes social, economic and
political aspects; it is difficult to draw inferences from political and administrative
dimension, hence this study gives more emphasis to the political and institutional
scopes even though they are not equallyselect .There are various factors that influenced and affected the research. Among these, some of the respondents were unwilling to give reliable and valid data especially about their personal information .Some of the respondent in the woreda and administration departments refused to give information and turned back the questioners
? The leaders of the woreda could not be obtained by the reason of close meeting.
? Respondents feared to tell the reality due to the political nature of the case.
? Financial constraint during collecting sufficient data from extended number of sample respondent, time and social constraints for data gathering and analysis.
? The overlap of work because social problems.

1.8 Operational definitions of key terms
In some circumstance a word may carry different meanings and the term that was used repeatedly in this study explained as follow:
Leaders: defined as woreda level leaders having legitimate power. In addition, Keble administrators having with legitimate power. Social hierarchies, cultural norms, and organizational structure all provide the basis for legitimate power.
Politics: it is about decision and it occurs in public space. It refers to ministers and cabinets, parliaments, councils; it means parties and pressure groups, civil services and courts (Philipos,1991)
Governance: – refers to the process of decision making and the process by which decisions areimplemented or not implemented “administrative authority in the management of countries affairs at all level. The way “power is exercised through a country’s economic, political, and social institution” the World Bank’s PRSP Handbook .Governance comprises the complex mechanisms, processes and institutions, through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, mediate their differences and exercise their legal rights and obligations.
Good governance: is the process and institutions produce results that meet the need of the
society, while making the best use of resources at their disposal. It also defined as the rule of the rulers typically within given set of rules. It is “among other things participatory, transparent and accountable. It is also effective and equitable which promotes rule of law” (UNDP)
Affects: – Influence some things that contribute to or have an influence on the outcome of same
thing(MicrosoftEncarta,2009)
Implementation : carry out or fulfill same thing: to put same thing in to effect or action lived.
Sustainability: – Encarta dictionary, (2009) define sustainable capable of sustained and sustain
means, lengthen or extend duration or space, prolong or keep in the good work. The definition
adapted by FAO (1988), sustainably development in the management and government of the
natural resource base and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a
manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and
future generations such sustainable development of society in governance related factor

CHAPTER- TWO
2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical framework of the study
2.1.1 Governance and Government
Governance is an old concept that originates from early democratic political theory which discusses the relationship between the rulers and the elope they rule. For instance, in the 19th century Woodrow Wilson defined a government that practice good governance as “a government that can be properly and successfully implement a given policy…. With the utmost possible efficiency and at the least possible cost of ether money or energy” (cited in comported 2002)
Governance is the process of decision-making and how those decisions are implemented. Governance is good when the systems and processes are accountable, transparent, just, responsive and participatory. Good governance or simply governance (World Bank 2007a) has been considered as an enormous concept (Barten et al. 2002), derived from the word government (Geddes 2005). Though some studies have defined governance and good governance differently (UNESCAP 2008), most authors mention them as synonymous. Whatever the debate over understanding of concepts, governance and good governance are seen as ‘partnership and social inclusion’ in politics and policies of concerned governments (Geddes 2005, p. 23).
Literally good governance means, what is not bad governance (Morshed 2007) or what is good enough governance (Grindle 2004), or that the level of goodness is high in governing processes (Besancon 2003). In this way it is suggested that good governance should be characterized as reduced corruption, improved accountability, adequately decentralized, well managed public resources, introduced proper laws and equality, restructured civil services and so on (Grindle 2004). Similarly the World Bank researchers mentioned six indicators that define a government as good or bad (Kaufmann, Kraay;Lobaton 1999). Hout (2002, p. 516) mentioned those indicators as follows: – Voice and accountability, Political stability/lack of violence, Government effectiveness, Regulatory burden, Rule of law and Graft.
Researchers also assert that a one standard deviation increase of any of these governance criteria is associated with a 2½ fold increase in per capita income, a 4 fold decrease in infant mortality and a 15 to 25 percent increase in literacy (Azmat 2007; Kaufmann, Kraay;Lobaton 1999).
In contrast, to the above criteria, international development agencies (IDAs) such as the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programs (UNDP), and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) have identified a number of basic components for good governance. Amongst these components four are common and universally recognized: accountability, participation, predictability, and transparency. By accountability it is understood that the governing authority would be answerable for its delivering of services. By participation the understanding is that local people and private sectors would be engaged with decision making processes. By predictability it is understood that, governing authority would make a decision implementable by following local laws and regulations. And finally, by transparency the understanding is that all the information that affects people should be available to the people (ADB 2000; Gurung 2000).
The terms “governance” and “good governance” are now fully part of the language of development. Whereas bad governance is broadly recognized as a root cause of poverty, good governance is often seen as a way to cure all ills. “Good governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development.” (Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations)
Government is made up of the structures and systems established for service delivery and ensuring security, voice and protection of all people in a country’s borders who fall under authority of the state. “Government must be more ambitious than a do-no-harm approach – it must actually be capable of doing some good.” (Paul Collier, author of The Bottom Billion)
2.1.2 Concept of Good Governance
The notion of good governance evolves logically from the concept of governance .Although the term has no uniform definition it has gaining currency in various literature and defined variously by different people .organization and government according to their own experience and interest .These definition generally describe good governance in terms of principles and norms ,which characterized it and are applicable as well as relevant for all level of government . The concept of good’ in ‘governance’ is an appendage to the word ‘governance’ and it is seen as the process and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised (World Bank, 2004). Furthermore, governance includes how governments are selected, held accountable, monitored and replaced with an emphasis on the capacity of government to manage resources and respect the rule of law (World Bank, 2004; Boyte, 2005). Therefore, the word ‘good’ in governance connotes the proper exercise of authority, management of resources and respect for the rule of law in accordance to laid-down principles for the benefit of all in a society.
In this regard, Babawale (2007) sees good governance as the exercise of political power to promote the public good and the welfare of the people. He argues that good governance is the absence of lack of accountability in government, corruption, and political repression, suffocation of civil society and denial of fundamental human rights. He points out the attribute of good governance in any society to include: accountability, transparency in government procedures, high expectation of rational decisions, predictability in government behavior, openness in government transactions, free flow of information, respect for the rule of law and protection of civil liberties, and press freedom.
Also, Brinkerhoff (2005) argues that governance extends beyond government action to address the role of citizens and the way groups and communities within society organize to make and implement decisions on matters of general concern. He observes that promoting good governance includes: reforms to increase accountability, transparency and responsiveness. Furthermore, good governance seeks to improve the capacity of the state, encompassing a variety of strategies to increase efficiency and effectiveness of government performance (Omona, 2010). This implies that accountability, transparency and responsiveness on the part of government and its officials are the hallmark of good governance in any society.
Ikotun (2004) argues that the concept of good governance characterize issues of performance in the management of a nation’s political, economic and social resources to enhance human capacity, social well-being and sustainable development in the society. In the same vein, Kofi Annan observes that good governance is vital for the protection of rights and the advancement of economic and social development (cited in Kim et al, 2005). Also, Ekpe (2008) argues that the purpose of good governance is to create conducive climate for political and socioeconomic development and to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of development programs in a society. He points out that the concept of good governance is used to characterize the interplay of the best practices in the administration of a state or nation for sustainable development. The fore going shows the importance of good governance to development in a society. If that is the case, what then is development?
2.1.3 Concept of Decision Making
There are a number of ideas and principles for making good decisions that affect many people – decisions made by civil society organizations or governmental authorities, at a local, national or international level. These ideas come from the Principles of Good Governance and are used by international and local NGOs as well as donors and governments themselves. They are also embedded in the Good Governance Framework. Those principles are: – Accountability, Participation, Equity and inclusiveness, Transparency, Rule of Law, Effectiveness and efficiency, Responsiveness and consensus oriented.

2.1.4 Good governance assessment models
Managerial Model:
In this model people are seen as passive recipients of information. Governing bodies deliver messages unilaterally to the people;
Consultative Model
This is a direct contrast with the managerial model. Here a governing body uses information systems to inform people, which system consequently facilitates communication between people and government. Chadwick and May (2003) described this as a ‘pull’ model as it reduces the gap between citizens and their government.
Participatory Model:
In this model people are provided with sufficient information which facilitates their involvement in the government programs. As there are no practical barriers for people’s involvement, information power helps people to form civil society. All people, or at least the maximum number, participate in the decision making process. The spirit of synergy and mutual assistance helps to achieve the goal. In addition to these, Navarra and Cornford (2005) developed the ‘Disciplinary Model’ of governance. In this model people may initiate collective social programs when they are fully empowered with information. In fact this model enforces local governing bodies provide for better policy to people, which was not possible in the last three models. Newman (2007) developed four models of governance on the basis of mode of relationships between service providers and their clients. These are:
? Hierarchical governance: the mode of relationship is rule based, where providers impose standardized templates of policies and local community receives that service. Here the service providing process is bounded with legal frames, monitoring audits and evaluation.
? Managerial governance: the mode of relationship is motivational, where both service providers and receivers are likely to act instrumentally. Service receivers contract individually and participate to achieve goals jointly, encouraged with incentives.
? Network governance: the mode of relationship is relational, where reciprocal communication develops trust in each other. Here collaboration/networking between service providers and receivers evolve into a friendly environment of program implementation.
? Self-governance: the mode of relationships normative, where service providers uphold strong values and norms to facilitate receivers to govern themselves. The developed organizational culture empowers local community to activate their own programs.
Similarly, on the basis of the people’s engagement; four models have been developed by researchers to describe qualities of governance. These are:
Managerial model –top down approach of implementation with marginal scope for people’s participation;
Legislative model –decision making process initiated from the top to develop a common agenda through consulting the people;
Limited community participation model –engage community to open up the decision making process that finally generates harmony within the governing body and/ or within the community; and
Community empowerment model –bottom up approach that happens because of extensive community participation (Gibson, Lacy ; Dougherty 2005). As a working proposition, there seems to be a good correlation between the stage of participation and the model of governance that can be depicted along the following lines.
2.1.5 Relationship between People’s Participation and Good Governance
This argument thus recognizes that the level of good governance increases through people’s
heightened participation in development programs. Japan International Cooperation Agencies
(JICA 1995) reported that good governance is the foundation of participatory development
in as much as it provides the government roles needed to encourage participation and create the environment in which people can participate effectively. Effective people’s participation
enhances the transparency of the development works, the accountability of the implementing
authority, and compliance with the local laws, which consequently establish good governance.
The above discussion thus indicates people’s participation and good governance are inseparable from each other JICA (1995, p. 75) Chadwick and May (2003) stated that the citizen-state relation i.e. the quality of governance (here e-democracy) varies with the variation of people’s empowerment levels that developed through the delivery of government information. They reconfigured three models of governance which were initially developed by Laudon (1977) on the basis of interaction between citizen and government.
Table 1 Correlation between Stages of Participation and Governance
Stage of Participation Model of Governance
Stage-1: Inform- a one-way process when the governing agency tells people about
their decision before or during implementation of development programs. Authoritarian Model: in this model a decision
comes from the top and is implemented mostly by bureaucrats. Total process of program is not transparent, accountable and predictable.
Stage- 2: Consult- a two-way
communication, but engagement of people
is limited within the decision making of
the program. Governing agency is used to
inform people to get feedback but makes
decisions and implements them
unilaterally. Bureaucratic Model: in this model people’s
participation is not enough to ensure the
transfer of power. The process of program is
less transparent and less predictable, and the
agency remains accountable to the top not to
the people.
Stage- 3: Involve- at this stage governing
agency not only listens to people to make
decision, but also engages people for
budget distribution and implements the
program together. Usually the whole
community does not get the scope to be
engaged in this process. Political Model: in this model people’s
participation is enough, but people are engaged
in the development programs in different
segments, which may evolve conflicts between
different interest groups. Governing agency is
transparent and accountable to a group of
people but not to the whole community.
Stage-4: Empower- at this stage the
governing agency allows developing the
capacity of people to come with their
decisions and resources to implement
development programs jointly. Agency
works as a facilitator. Democratic Model: this model allows
developing partnerships with people, delegates
authority to make decisions and implements
program with a sharing of local knowledge.
Total process of the program is highly
transparent, accountable and predictable.
Source: JICA (1995)
The above Table illustrates that good governance can be achieved through continuous
endeavor to empower the people. This Table can be used as a tool to identify the position of
governance at a certain stage of participation, which was provide a clear indication about the
next step to achieve good governance.
2.1.6 Models of Good Governance on the Basis of Participation Levels
Reviewing all above statements and models, an outline and diagram of models of governance on the basis of people’s participation can be drawn up, which is shown along with the following lines
Authoritarian Model: This model evolves when people’s participation remains at stage 1, that
is, at the information level. In this situation, decisions and resources come from the top and
projects are implemented mostly by the Representatives or a display board or snail mail to inform people about the program. The total process of the program is not transparent, accountable or predictable.
Bureaucratic Model: This model develops when people’s participation level Governing Agency remains the consultation stage. Governing agencies, in this model, consult with the people and use the resources of the people, but do not share power with them, to make decisions and/or policy. The participation is not consultation. People are treated as customers or clients by the authority as they do not share the whole process of development implementation.
Political Model: This model evolves when the participation level reaches the stage of
involvement. In this model, the governing agency shares the knowledge, resources and authority
where both sides share histories, rituals, values and other common interests, and
establish a more cooperative network to develop any program. But, people can be
engaged with the development programs fractionally, and that can bring about
conflicts. People are treated as partners, players or as contingent in this model, but the building of trust between the agency and the local people may remain weak because of the segmented network that has evolved. Predictability, transparency, and accountability are high in this model, as far as some people are conceived, but not for the community as a whole. To show this segmented scenario has been drawn, which represents a better area of good governance.
Democratic Model: This model emerges gradually as people’s participation attains the stage of empowerment. This model allows developing a partnership with people, delegating authority to make decisions and implementing programs with the sharing of local knowledge, resources and values. This model allows participatory planning and strategic decision making, which facilitate the development of a common vision, Predictability Accountability Participation Transparency Articulation of needs, effective, efficient and transparent management that facilitate a joint working environment. Transparency, accountability and predictability are fairly high in this model finally this is the most rational model when people are considered as
stewards or navigators. But, authorities need to be flexible and open to encourage the
development of this model. The above diagrams thus illustrate that good governance cannot be achieved only improving systems or capacities of the governing agencies. Democratic good governance can be achieved through proper cooperation between governing agencies and local people. On the one end, governing agencies need to come close to the local people by extending and smoothing pro people systems and approaches. On the other end, local people need to be empowered enough to make joint decisions that may have an effect on them. Only through these reciprocal activities people’s participation may be effective towards achieving good governance
Economic growth is about increasing the size of the pie, while equity ensures that everybody has a piece of it. The quality of governance can affect both these outcomes, positively or adversely. For governance to result in positive development outcomes, it is necessary to understand how it works in different spheres – political, legal?judicial, selected public sectors economic and social?environmental. Hence, it needs to measure it. There has been an explosive growth in governance assessments. A host of organizations routinely rank countries on various governance parameters based on a given set of indicators. The methodology followed for assessing governance varies from subjective perceptions of experts on the one extreme to hard data on the other. The limitations of not only the indicators themselves but also the methodologies are well recognized. It is a challenge to come up with a new framework for assessing governance given the complexity and controversy involving the subject.
The method of assessment varies from case to case, but is largely based on subjective assessment. If it is done by country team in case of World Bank, it is done through a cross section of experts and well informed persons in case of WGS. On one extreme Bangladesh governance assessment is based on studies by research scholars and on the extreme the complete assessment is based on hard data in case of Fiji’s index
Table 2 The principle and elements of governance in different countries
Framework Governance
Elements are
referred as Their
Number Particulars Assessment
World Bank
Country Policy and
Institutional Assessment
(CPIA) Clusters Four a. Economic Management
b. Structural Policies
c. Social inclusion and equity
d. Public sector management and institutions By WB country team on a scale of 1?6
World Bank
Institute
(WGI) Aspects Six a. Voice and Accountability
b. Political Stability and absence of violence
c. Government effectiveness
d. Regulatory quality
e. Rule of law
f. Control of corruption Constructed from existing perception indicators derived from 37 different data sources produced by 31 different organizations
United Nations University World
Government Survey Stages or
Arenas Six a. Civil Society
b. Political Society
c. Government
d. Bureaucracy
e. Economic Society
f. Judiciary By a cross section of local experts or well informed persons (WIPs)
International IDEA
Framework Pillars Four a. Citizenship, law and rights
b. Representative and accountable government
c. Civil Society and Popular Participation
d. Democracy Beyond the state
Fiji’s Governance
Index Dimensions Four a. Rule of Law
b. Government effectiveness
c. Regulatory quality
d. Social development Secondary Data
USAID Dimension Four a. Rule of Law
b. Elections and Political Processes
c. Civil Society
d. Transparency and Accountability
State of Governance in
Bangladesh 2006 Dimension Seven a. Political Governance
b. Macroeconomic Governance
c. Public Administration
d. Justice
e. Local governance
f. Civil Society
g. Social Protection By Research Scholars
Source
2.1.7 Core elements of good governance
Different international and regional organizations including the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) tried to define the following elements as core characteristics of good governance(UNDP, 1997) (ADB,2002) (S. Grindle,2005) (ODI, 2006) (SHRDC, 2004) (AUSAID, 2005) (UNDESA,2007):
Participation which refers to the process by which all men and women have a voice in decision making either directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests. The course of such broad participation is based up on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively. Good governance also requires that civil society has the opportunity to participate during the formulation of development strategies and that directly affected communities and groups should be able to participate in the design and implementation of programs and projects. Even where projects have a secondary impact on particular localities or population groups, there should be a consultation process that takes their views into account. This aspect of governance is an essential element in securing commitment and support for projects and enhancing the quality of their implementation (IFAD, 1999:3).
Rule of law, the legal frame works should be fair and enforced impartially particularly the laws on human rights. A fair, predictable and stable legal framework is essential so that businesses and individuals may assess economic opportunities and act on them without fear of arbitrary interference or expropriation. This requires that the rules be known in advance, that they be actually in force and applied consistently and fairly, that conflicts be resolvable by an independent judicial system, and that procedures for amending and repealing the rules exist and are publicly known (ibid).
Transparency has to be built on the free flow of information. In transparency processes, institutions and information are directly accessible to the concerned bodies so as to understand and monitor them. As private-sector investment decisions depend on public knowledge of the government’s policies and confidence in its intentions, as well as in the information provided by the government on economic and market conditions, transparency of decision-making, particularly in budget, regulatory and procurements, is critical to the effectiveness of resource use and the reduction of corruption and waste.
Responsiveness refers to the attempt of institutions and process to serve all stakeholders. It refers to the public servant’s responsiveness to the public, by methods and procedures to enforce the public was. Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe (Obaidullah, 2001).
Consensus orientation urges good governance to mediate differing interests to arrive at broad consensus on what is the best interest of the group, and where possible, on policies and procedures.
Equity and equality, good governance has to promote to all men and women to advance or sustain their wellbeing. According to UN-Habitat the sharing of power leads to equity in the access to and use of resources. Women and men must participate as equals in all urban decision making, priority-setting and resource allocation processes. Inclusive cities provide everyone – be it the poor, the young or older persons, religious or ethnic minorities or the handicapped – with equitable access to nutrition, education, employment and livelihood, health care, shelter, safe drinking water, sanitation and other basic services (Linkola,2002:3). Linkola suggests the practical means of realizing this principle that include, inter alia:
• Ensuring that women and men have equal access to decision-making processes, resources and
• basic services and that this access is measured through gender disaggregated data;
• Establish quotas for women representatives in local authorities and encourage their promotion
• to higher management positions within municipalities;
• Ensure bye-laws and economic development policies support the informal sector;
• Promote equal inheritance rights for land and property;
• Establishing equitable principles for prioritizing infrastructure development and pricing urban services;
• Removing unnecessary barriers to secure tenure and to the supply of finance; creating fair and predictable regulatory frameworks

Effectiveness and efficiency, the concept of good governance should ensure efficiency and effectiveness in the use of resources of a nation having not compromise the crucial needs of citizens. It is the extent to which limited human and financial resources are applied without unnecessary, waste, delay or corruption. Urban areas must be financially sound and cost effective in their management of revenue sources and expenditures, the administration and delivery of services, and in the enablement, based on comparative advantage, of government, the private sector and communities to contribute formally or informally to the urban economy. A key element in achieving efficiency is to recognize and enable the specific contribution of women to the urban economy (ibid). It also refers the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government’s commitment to such policies (M.A. Thomas).
Accountability:-refers to establishing of criteria and oversight mechanisms to measure the performance of public officials as well as to ensure that the standards are met. Decision makers in public institutions, private sector and civil society organizations should be accountable to the public as well as to institutional stakeholders. This accountability can be differed based on the nature of the organization or manner of decision either the decision is external or internal to the organization.
Based on the above literature reviews, to study whether good governance is well implemented or not, the researcher identified the core elements of good governance that can identify the challenges which hinder implementation of good governance principles. However, among the eight elements five of them were considered to assess them properly. Theses selected elements were participation, transparency, equity & equality, effectiveness & efficiency and accountability

2.2 Conceptual frame work of the study
The conceptual frame work is adapted from {LIU,2002 ,Mardiasmo,2008 and semunigs ,2011} seeking to align the independent attributes those have effects on characteristics of good governance that are used as indicators to assess the practice of good governance to identify major challenges in implementation ,factors of good governance indication in the conceptual framework taken in consideration but not limited to it .Generally if identified factors positively affect those characteristic it lead to good governance and as result the quality of service delivery to the citizen increases . As the citizens delivered services that fit their need then their sense of belongingness on public institution increases and their trust on government too.
Ultimately securing good governance would makes an environment conductive for development endeavor if it goes on the opposite governance was become poor and hampers development endeavor of a given locality.

CHAPTER THREE
3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES
3.1 Introduction
This part was aimed at describing the procedures that was used in conducting this research. It describes, the research design such as research approach, research type, research strategy and research time dimension, methods of data collection, sampling techniques such as population or universe, sampling frame, sampling unit, sample size and sample, sources of data such as primarily and secondary data sources, data collection tools (instruments), data analysis and interpretation, operational frame work of variables, ethical consideration of the study.
3.2 Description of the study Area
Shabe sombo woreda is one of among 21 woredas in Jimma administrative zone of oromia regional state. It is located at the western part of Jimma zone at distance of 50kms from Jimma town and 445km from Addis Ababa. According to the Central Statistical agency of Ethiopia (2007), the total population for this woreda is 112,068. Of these, 56,737 are men and 55,331 are women; 5,265 or 4.7% of its population are urban dwellers. Religion wise, the majority of the inhabitants are Muslims, i.e. 76.83% of the total population, while 21.26% of the population professed Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and 1.77% are Protestant.
Concerning of the Administrative structure, the Woreda is divided in to twenty two Kebles. In relation to the public sectors there are 34 public sectors found at office level. The woreda also have 56 schools, 5 health centers and 20 health post which rendering service to the public through 1981 civil servant. In addition, there are five voluntary organized associations in the woreda. In the woreda there are women’s, youth, teachers, physically disabled and elders association. Finally, shabe sombo woreda has the potential for crop, coffee, spice production and livestock rearing which is mainly undertaken by small holder’s farmers and also relatively growing a number of agro-processing industries operating in the area.

3.3 Research design
As stated by Kothari (2004,p.32), “designing research is making a road map to study which leads all function and steps undertaken. As the conceptual structure with in which research is conducted, it consists the blue print for the collection , measurement and analysis of data .It is also strategy of describing procedure about sample size ,data source means of data collection and methods of data processing , analyzing and presenting based on available time and recourse. In this study, the researcher was use the research design of descriptive particularly survey type of research.
This method was generally wide in scope and important to determine opinion, knowledge and experience of specific population from those who are familiar with the issue.
Moreover, the researcher chooses the descriptive research because it is low in cost and often involves the description of the extent of association between two or more variables. Therefore, this method was be used to describe the status of good governance practice and challenges in the process of implementation at the study area.
3.4 Research Approach
The study applying mixed research approaches to describe practice and challenges of good governance. Why the researcher chooses both approaches the main approach is that the practice and challenges of good governance is difficult to get the representative data of its degree of implementation. Merely rather is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and behaviors treated by qualitative approach. By understanding these barriers, the researcher was be use qualitative approach to generate reliable data by using interview and focus group discussion. The quantitative approach also employed with qualitative approach to generate data in quantitative form through questioners and both was be fruitfully combine in analysis part to evaluate complementary aspects of the subject under study.
3.5 Population and Sampling Techniques
According to Bhattcherjee, A. (2012) description, Sampling is the statistical process of selecting a subset (called a “sample”) of a population of interest for purposes of making observations and statistical inferences about that population. The sampling process comprises of several stage. The first stage is defining the target population. The second step in the sampling process is to choose a sampling frame. It is possible that sampling frames may not entirely be representative population and if so, inferences derived by such a sample may not be generalizable to the population. The last step in sampling is choosing a sample from the sampling frame using a well-defined sampling technique. Thus, in this study, the researcher was use initially defining the target population; then determining the sample frame and sample unit; sampling techniques, sampling size and finally picking a representative sample.
3.5.1 Target Population
The study was taken an approach to investigate the practices and challenges of Good Governance in selected public sectors in the study area. Hence, the target population of the study is employees accessible at human resource development section of their respective organization such as civil servants and leaders of selected public sectors, Development agents (DAs), leaders of community association, and selected school principals & teachers in shabe sombo woreda.
3.5.2 Sample Frame
According to Bhattacherjee, A., (2012) the second step in the sampling process was to choose a sampling frame. This is an accessible section of the target population (usually a list with contact information) from where a sample can be drawn. It is list of all the sampling units in the population. Here, the researcher identified as the sampling frame of the study comprises a list of sample unit from which the sample was drawn. Thus, the sample frame of this study is list of civil servants of selected public sectors such as woreda administration, education, health, agriculture, road authority, finance and economic development, water and minerals, MSE development, justice, and public service office, and DAs, health workers accessible at human resource development section of their respective organization and leaders of community associations.
3.5.3 Sample unit
Sample unit of this study included leaders and civil servants of woreda administration, education, health, agriculture, road authority, finance and economic development, water and minerals, MSE development, justice, and public service office accessible at human resource development section of their respective organization; supervisors & principals of selected school; supervisors of agriculture and health; and leaders of community associations. The researcher selected them for the reason that an issue of good governance is directly or in directly affect the above sample unit.
3.5.4 Sample Size
3.5.4.1 Sampling size For Quantitative sampling
According to woreda civil service sector (2016/17) there are 1589 civil servant in selected public sector of the woreda. Therefore, in quantitative research sample size is determined using a statistical formula as quantitative research is intentionally random sampling.
Here in the study, to determine the sample size, the researcher got 93% of confidence level and an estimation of +7% level of precision; because it is easier to manage sample size; so that the researcher can control systematic error easily. Although the sample size determination table can provide the size of the sample, the researcher needs to calculate the necessary sample size by combining the desired precision and confidence of level to increase its reliability and validity. Different authors use different formula to determine the sample size of the study for quantitative. Accordingly, in this study, the following formula set by Kothari (2004), in the case of definite population, was used to calculate sample size of the study.
n= Z2 (p) 2(q) 2(N)____
d2 (N-1) + (Z) 2(P) 2(q) 2
Where:
n is the desired sample size; N is total population of micro and small enterprises operators in the study area; Z is 1.81 that is z-value for 93% of confidence level; p is an estimation of variance (0.5); q is (1-p) which is equal to 0.5; and e is an estimation of sampling error which is +7%=0.7. Hence
n= (1.81)2(0.5)(0.5)(1589) 0.819025(1589) = 1301.43 = 151
0.07)2(1589-1) + (1.81)2(0.5)(0.5) 7.7812 +0.819025 8.6
Therefore, the desired sample of employees of the population of selected public sectors in the study was 151. Of which the sample size of civil servants from selected public sectors was proportionally calculated as follows:
xi (n) = xi(151)
N 1589
Where, xi is the number of population in DAs, teachers, principals, health workers and civil servant of selected sectors at woreda level.
Table; 3 Sample size proportion for employees of the population of selected public sectors in the woreda.
s.no Name of public sector Location Total employees Sample population
Total
1 Selected Public office found at woreda level Urban 208 19
2 Schools teachers Urban and rural 1088 103
3 Principals Urban and rural 56 6
4 Health center and health extension worker
Urban and rural 191 18
5 DAS’ Rural 46 5
Total 1589 151
Source: Own computation based data obtained from woreda civil service sector, 2016/17.
3.5.4.2 Sampling size For Qualitative sampling
To used different data collection instrument for purposive selection of key informants who was administer through interview can be keep away from the list to avoid double selection to use qualitative approach .This was only employed for the offices that key informants were select. In addition, key informant administer through interview for this study were also select purposively. It included official assume to have direct responsible to the issue of good governance representative from office head public sector .and coordinators of civic association. Focus group discussion was held with one group. The participants of focus groups discussion was be from community association committee groups were arranged for development activities in the woreda administration were select purposively.
3.5.5 Sampling technique
In this study, to select sample respondents from the total population, both probability and non probability sampling techniques were used. The reason for probability was that to select respondents from the civil servant. Therefore, stratified random sampling was used to identify the respondents out of the sample unit. Whereas non probability sampling was used to select key respondents or informants that are the leader of selected public sector and the community association committee were be selected purposively, because the researcher believed that they can provide enough information concerning the topic under study

Table 4 Summarization of sampling and sampling techniques.
No. Sampling frame Sample unit Total population Sample size

Sampling
Toque
Methodology
used
1 Civil servants of selected public sectors Civil servants of woreda administration, education, health, agriculture, road authority, finance and economic development, water and minerals, MSE development, justice, and public service office 1589 151 Stratified Random Sample questionnaire
2 Community association committee The committee of Community associations of women, youth, teachers, disability and elders
10 10 Purposive Sampling FGD
3 Leaders of selected sectors Leaders of woreda administration, education, health, agriculture, road authority, finance and economic development, water and minerals, MSE development, justice, and public service office.. 10 10

Purposive sampling Interview
Total respondents of the study 171
Source: Developed by Researcher.

3.5.6 Sampling design
A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining sample from the sampling frame .It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher adopted in selecting sampling unit from which inferences about the population was drown (kother,2004)
The subjects of this study were those populations serving in public sector. To draw representative from sample frame public sectors classify according to their geographical location as office found at the woreda and those institution locate at rural part of the woreda .Then to address employees at the rural part of the woreda, all secondary, preparatory and second cycle primary school, selected purposively. The health center, health posts and farmers train center also take from those kebeles in which sample schools were selected.
To ease the process of data collection researcher used the clusters already establish by the woreda education office uses and the number of representative or employees or teachers of schools from each cluster determined based on the number of employees they have and sample were select from each school by using stratified probability sampling method .
The sample populations from public sector at the center of the woreda are development agents, supervisors, civil servants at woreda level also select by the same sampling technique to the size of representative population.
3.5.7 Data collection techniques
To make the way of getting reliable data easy before preparing questionnaires to sample population including the study, the researcher informed respondents all the necessary things which the study were required for academic purpose. Also ethical issue and confidentiality communicate with sample respondents prior to data collection .Doing so to achieve the intend objective and enable to address the research questions closed and open-ended questionnaires with structure and semi-structure interview and focus groups discussion done during data collection with employees, official and other participants of this study.
3.5.7.1 Source of Data
In this study both of qualitative and quantitative data obtained from primary and secondary data sources
Primary data sources
To address the leading question and to achieve the objective of the study firsthand information was obtained from sample population through questioner, interview and focused group discussion. The data for the study from different documents also analyzed.
Secondary data source
Relevant books, working papers, previous research, reports, web site, unpublished materials and other related documents were used in this research as secondary data source and government policy document also used to support the reliability of the information obtained from sample population.
3.5.8 Data collection instrument
3.5.8.1 Questionnaire
Both open ended and cloth ended questionnaires prepared and distributed to 151 civil servants. The question distributed for sample respondents were translated to the local language (Afaan Oromo) to understand easily as much as possible.
3.5.8.2 Interview
The researcher used semi-structured interviews contained the components of both, structured and unstructured interviews. In semi-structured interviews, interviewer prepares a set of same questions to be answered by all interviewees. Moreover, in this type of primary data collection researcher had direct control over the flow of process and she had a chance to clarify certain issues during the process. Interview were conducted with -10 respondents who are purposively select from office heads by assuming they have direct contact with the issue of good governance. All interviews have done by allocating time 30min to each respondent. The qualitative data were presented by using narration and both the data obtained from both instrument triangulated to make finding meaning full.
3.5.8.3 Focus group discussion
Focus group discussion was held with one group only. The participants of focus groups discussion were from groups arranged for development activities in the Keble’s such Keble was be selected purposively.
3.5.9 Method of Data Analysis
Data collected through questionnaires were reorganized in to five main categories based on main good governance indicators used in the study and analyzed descriptively. In analyzing of the data, SPSS software version 20 has been used for simple averages and frequency. Information obtained from interviews of key leaders support the analysis of data collecteddirectly from employee and service user respondents. The data, both quantitative and qualitative, gathered through each tool is organized, analyzed and interpret to meet the objectives of the study. For data analysis, combinations of quantitative and qualitative methods are use. The quantitative data collect through questionnaire is organized and analyzed in a way that first the responses for the close ended questions are editing, code and feed to computer by applying appropriate software. Then descriptive statistics mainly frequency, percentage, and cross tabulation was computed for analysis purpose.
On the other hand the qualitative data collected using open ended questions of the survey questionnaire; interviews held with selected public sectors in the woreda and community association committees and using informal discussions with the user communities is organized and analyzed qualitatively through content analysis. For this, first, the note from the informal discussion is transcribed and translated from the local language (Afaan Oromo) to English. Second, by reading through all of the qualitative data, it is review and organize to develop a general understanding of the data set and short memos are prepare which was best help in organizing and categorizing the data in to concepts either by question or by case. Then, through narrative description the results of the entire qualitative data is analyzed and interpreted. Lastly, the analysis and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data are integrated to handle the research problem.
3.6 Ethical Consideration
Participants of the study were informed about the objectives of the study emphasizing that the data was used only for the intended academic purpose. The data were collected by employing various techniques with the consent of the participants of the study. Careful attention has been given regarding respecting the rights, needs, and values of the study subject and maintaining confidentiality of the data and acknowledging sources information.
3.7 Validity & Reliability of the Instrument
Since validity is refers to what the instrument measures the proposed objectives, the researcher used different methods to increase validity of the instruments. After the questionnaires were translated into Afaan Oromo language, the researcher has consulted language teachers to comment and correct any difference between the two versions. Before the actual survey, a pilot test was done with sample of 20 respondents from target population (2 respondents from woreda administrative office 2, respondents from Education office 2,respondents from health, 2 respondents from road authority2, respondents from water and energy 2, respondents from civil service woreda administrative 2 ,respondents from MSED2 , respondents from justice2 and 2 respondents from agricultural respondents from FD to check the clarity and validity of the items randomly. However, respondents from pilot survey were got the parts of actual survey. Based on the comments the test, different adjustments were made and the modified questionnaires were distributed to obtain during the respondents. Based on the data collected, each basic research questions were examined.
Table 6 Reliability Statistics
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items Meaning
0.72 28 Reliable
Source: Source: Field Survey, 2018

CHAPTER FOUR
4 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Introduction
This chapter deals with the data analysis, discussion, finding and interpretation of data gathered through questionnaire, Interview and FGD. The chapter analyzes, discuss and present objectives of the research. And also the data collected from different sources using different tools have been consolidated as well as analyzed using SPSS software package and other statistical tools and finally presented using graphs, charts, percentages and tables.
4.2 Response Rate
From the total sample size of 171, 10 leaders have been dedicated for interview and 10 head and vice of the committee of Community associations for focus group discussion. Thus, the remaining 151 questionnaire have been distributed to the civil servants of the 10 selected woreda sectors study area, such as Education, health, road authority, water, mineral and energy,Publicservice and Human resource Development, woreda selected public sectorsMSED, justice ,finance and economic development and agricultural sectors. From these 151 (100%) of them have returned the questionnaires for this study and in the qualitative approach 9 (90%) and 8 (80) of interviewees and FGD participants respectively achieved in the data gathering methods. Thus, the researcher believes that the respondent rates were achievable to precede to analyses the collected data through the different data gathering tools.
Table 5 Response Rate
No. Data Collection Tools Number of Planned Respondents Number of Actual Respondents Respondent Rate
1. Questionnaires 151 151 100%
2. Interview 10 9 90%
3. FGD 10 8 80%
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.3 Demographic Profile of the Respondents
To understand the demographic features of the respondents some characters were included in the questionnaire, like gender, age, educational status, work experience (service year) and marital status. The purpose of demographic data; it gives a context to the findings of the study. The summarized demographic information of the sample population for this study is presented as follows.
4.3.1 Gender of Respondents
While considering the gender, out of total respondents, 111(73.5%) and 40(26.5%) are male and female respondents respectively, from the data the researcher understood that the majority of the respondents are male that engaged in different expert positions. This may emanate from cultural influence and the perception of male on the representation of women.
Table 7 Gender of respondents
Gender Frequency Percent
Male 111 73.5
female 40 26.5
Total 151 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.3.2 Age of Respondents
As it can be revealed on the table below, the majority of respondents, 67 (44.4%) are at the age between 26-30years and 55(36.4%) are the age between31-35years. While, 17 (11.3%) and 11 (7.3%) of respondents are at the age between 20- 25 and 36- 45 years respectively whereas, the remaining 1(.7%) of the respondents are at the age of46- 55 years. This implies that majority of respondents are between the ages of 26- 30 and years in the selected organizations and it seems they are productive age because they are young , so they can bring fighting in the challenges process of good governance in the study area.
Table 8 Age of Respondents
No Age in years Frequency Percent
1 20-25 17 11.3
2 26-30 67 44.4
3 31-35 55 36.4
4 36-45 11 7.3
5 46-55 1 .7
Source: Field Survey, 2018

4.3.3 Work Experience of Respondents
On the other hand, while grouping respondents on their work experience, 9(6.0%) of the respondent have been serving less than 2 years. Whereas 41(27.2%) and 79(52.3%) served between 2 to 5 years and 6 to 10 years respectively. And the remaining 22(14.6%) have served above 10 years. This may indicate that majority 142(94%) of the respondents have more than two years work experiences in the selected public sectors. Thus, the respondents can reveal the existing situation of the present good governance implementation in the study area.
Table 9Experience of respondents
No Experience of respondent Frequency Percentage
1 less than 2 years 9 6.0
2 2-5 years 41 27.26
3 6-10 years 79 52.3
4 above 10 years 22 14.6
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.3.4 Educational Status
In relation to the educational status of respondents, the results were found that 90(59.6%) of respondents had first degree, 50(33.1%) of them had diploma, 10(6.6%) of them had certificate and only 1(.7%) of them had second degree. This implies that the organizations different composition of professionals with their educational status that can reveal the points of the study by understanding the existing situation in the implementation of good governance principle in the study area.
Table 10Educational status of the respondents
No Educational status Frequency Percent
Certificate 10 6.6
Diploma 50 33.1
Degree 90 59.6
Masters 1 .7
Total 151 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.3.5 Marital status of the respondents
Regarding to marital status 55(36.4.9%) of the respondents were unmarried and 88 (58.3%) of them were married while 6 (4.0%) and 2(1.3%) were divorced and widow respectively. From the table blow, it canimpliesthatthe studyinvolve different society with their marital status which is significant in the study of implementation of good governance principle in their use ; service delivery.
Table 11Marital status of the respondents
No Marital status
Frequency Percent
Unmarried 55 36.4
Married 88 58.3
Divorced 6 4.0
Other 2 1.3
151 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.4 Challenges in implementation of Good Governance
4.4.1 Factors influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance

Table 12Factors influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance
NO ITEM Rates Frequency Percentage
1 Lack of decision making skill Strongly agree 20 13.2
Agree 102 67.5
Undecided 7 4.6
Disagree 22 14.6
Total 151 100
2 Lack of clear organizational rules and regulation Strongly agree 39 25.8
Agree 102 67.5
undecided 8 5.3
Disagree 2 1.3
Total 151 100
3 Interference by external bodies.
Strongly agree 35 23.2
Agree 94 62.3
undecided 9 6
Disagree 13 8.6
Total 151 100
4 Leader’s commitment problem Strongly agree 25 16.6
Agree 99 65.5
undecided 12 7.9
Disagree 15 9.9
Total 151 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
As it can be seen from Table 12, the majority 122(80.7 of respondents rated as agree and strongly agree respectively with the existence of leadership challenge in related to Lack of decision making skill while 22 (14.6%) respondents disagree on existence of Lack of decision making skill problem. Only 7(4.6%) of respondents were neither agree nor disagree on the existence of Lack of decision making skill as a good governance challenge. This implies that employees in the public organizations tend to believe that Lack of decision making skill of the leaders affect good governance principles. Having decision making skill could improve the leaders’ decision to improve good governance.
Additionally, majority of interviewees and FGD participants confirmed that having decision making skills has an essential role to increase or decrease theleaders’ decision to improve good governance and different activities in their life. However, implementation of decision making skill in the study area is unsatisfactory.
From the second item on the table above Lack of clear organizational rules and regulation were influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance negatively; majority of the respondents 141(93.3), agreed and strongly agreed respectively on the issue that lack of clear organizational rules and regulation. only 2(1.3%) of respondents disagree about the issue while 8 (5.3%) of respondents neither agree nor disagreeon the concern of lack of clear organizational rules and regulation.
Additionally, majority of both the interviewees and FGD participants confirmed thathaving clear organizational rules and regulation is poor and less transparency in displaying rules and regulation for others that exacerbate bad governance because of changing of the leaders from one sectors to another from time to time the leaders do not bring the material to the office after taking any training.Hear in our woreda this is great problem the majority of the intervieweesanswered like this. This implies that that there were no clear organizational rules and regulationwhich play great role in implying good governance principles through decision making process.
Regarding the third item of question on the tableabovewhich is related with interference by external Bodies negatively, majority of the respondents 129(85.5.%) agreed and strongly agreed about interference by external bodiesinfluence leaders’ decision to improve good governance. While 13 disagreed and 9(6%) of respondents (8.6. %) of respondents neither agree nor disagree on the issue.

Additionally, online with this question, all of the response of interviewees FDG confirmed same of the leaders agree with the above response from the respondents while the remains leaders were the opposite that decision by leaders were not influenced by external bodies From this one can conclude there is problem of interference by external bodies which are a challenge for leaders’ decision to improve good governance. Hence, this can contributed for lessleaders’ decision to improve good governance.
Likewise, on the fourth item of question related withLeader’s commitment problem affect negatively; the results were found that 124(82.1%) of respondents were agreed strongly agreed and the rest 15(9.9%) and 12(7.9%) of them remain disagree and undecided respectively. Hence the majority of respondents agreed that Leader’s commitment problem, negatively influence leaders’ decision to improve good governancethis may implies that due to Leader’s commitment problem decision to improve good governance were great problemshown in the public sectors.And also there are huge challenges and hurdles that wait ahead.
The majority of the interviewees and FDGwere agreed with the above opinion they add also some of the challenges are related to rent-seeking, nepotism, leadership incompetency and working system limitations which the government is currently trying harder to reform all.
As it is indicated by various forums of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Front (EPRDF) good governance is a challenge that is encountered at different levels due to capacity constraints among leaders and public servants at different administrative levels. To curb these challenges government launched a number of processes re engineering and training programs to improve skills and ensure appropriate good practices in different government institutions.
The government on its part is deeply evaluating and taking measures to reverse the deep rooted grievances that created massive public dissatisfaction at various levels. It is evaluating its leadership gaps as part of the ongoing deep reform that it has put in place following the 15 years evaluation of the ruling party.
In general Good governance and effective leadership are the essential requirements for an organization to be considered successful in the eyes of all stakeholders in the 21st century. There is a direct link between Good Governance, effective leadership and economic prosperity. The difference between African and Asian countries, many of which started their history as states at the same point in the 1960s, is striking. Lack of effective leadership is the main cause for Africa’s lagging behind from the rest of the world. Governance intertwined with effective leadership is the key variable. Effective leadership and Good Governance is two sides of the same coin. The two have many elements in common. Without an effective leadership we may not envisage Good Governance in its totality. In fact, Good Governance may not be achieved in its totality because of cultural, psychological, social and sociological impacts and differences. Its implementation and perception also varies in line with the level of development and demands of the society. Due to this, the practice shows that very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality.(Herlad News Ensuring good governance 21 Mar 2018 )
4.4.2 Challenges facing the leaders in insuring good governance.
Table 13: Challenges face the leaders insuring good governance.
NO Item Category Frequency Percentage
1 Can you identify what challenges are facing leaders to insure good governance? Yes 148 98.0
No 3 2.0
2 Can you considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good
governance?

Yes 128 84.8
No 23 15.2
3 . Is there a relationship between citizen’s development demand and good governance Yes, they have a direct relationship. 134 88.7
Yes, they have indirect relationship. 14 9.3
No, they do not have any relationship. 3 2.0

4 Poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance.
Strongly agree 92 60.9
Agree 46 30.5
Partially agree 13 8.6
Disagree
5 Customers do not know their responsibility when they want service form Government Offices.
Strongly agree 82 54.3
Agree 45 29.8
Partially agree 23 15.2
Disagree 1 .7

Source: Field Survey, 2018
From the above table13 item 1 the perception of respondents related with challenges are facing leaders to insure good governance? Most of the respondents148 (98 %) replied yes, 3(2.0%) of them replied no. This indicates there is a challenge facing leaders to insure good governance in public organizations.
Similarly the qualitative data, FGD participants also stated their opinion on the issue on the question can you identify what challenges are facing leaders to insure good governance? The respondents said yes, there are so many factors which Poor implementation capacity of government offices, the awareness of the customers and civil servants on the principle of good governance the rent seeking of same employees, resourceproblem, the proper implementation of the principle of good governance They have been shown across groups to be only skilled of minor matters, incompetent and less gifted to create new idea for the about development and service delivery system for the community. This was planned and protected through the socio-cultural factors societies which internalized the idea. This implies that there are challenges of reader to practices the principle of good governance
As it can be seen on the above table 13 of the second item the considered resource problem as one challenge of leaders to insure good governance? 128(84.8%) of respondents are yes considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good governance? 23(15.2. %) of them replied no.
Additionally as translated from Amharic version, FGD discussion participants stated as; considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good governance, lack of budget lack of skilled human resource and other were the challenges.This implies that considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good governance.
Utilization, maintenance and purchasing system is not fair, adequate knowledge and skill in planning and allocating financial resource is observed and Management flows transparency principle in resource utilization is the problem of leader to insure good governance .
As it can be seen on the above table13 of the third items respondents were also asked to give their views regarding there a relationship between citizen’s development demand and good governance; most of the respondents134(88.5 %) are yes, they have a direct relationship. and 14(8.6%) And 3(2%) of respondents replied Yes, they have indirect relationship .and No, they do not have any relationship. This implies that development demand and good governance have a direct relationship to increase to good governance.it is possible to conclude that there were a relationship between citizen’s development demand and good governance; Poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance.

As it can be seen on the above table13 of the forth items the majority of the respondents 138(60.9% strongly agree and agreefor poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders to insure good governance. The remain 13(8.6%)were partially agree so this implies that almost all the respondents were agree on the idea poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance. It shows there is Poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance.
As it can be seen on the above table13 of the fifth items on customers knowledge on responsibility 127 (84.1%) of the respondents replies strongly agree and 45 (29.8%) of the respondents replies agree and 23 (15.2%) and 1(0.7%) of the respondents were partially agree and disagree that customers do not know their responsibility when they want service from government offices. This implies that there was lack of awareness about their responsibility when they want service form government Offices the main challenges of good governance implementation.

As interviewees and focus group discussion except those some respondents who’s their ideas contradicting the ideas of leaders conducted through interview, all the community of our woreda do not now there responsibility when they come to the office to gate the service.

4.4.3 PRACTICES OF THE CORE ELEMENTS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE
It is understood that, good governance is an ideal concept, which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Among its’ characteristics, show the views of respondents in terms of Accountability, Participation, Effectiveness ; Efficiency, Equity ; Equality, and Transparency.
4.4.4 Accountability
Table 14 Accountability
No Item Frequency/% Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly agree Total
1 Accountability of administration are implemented properly F 69 25 3 23 31 151
% 45.7 16.6 2.0 15.2 20.5 100
2 Adequate knowledge of polices, principles and procedures are well practiced F 80 41 5 12 13 151
% 53.0 27.2 3.3 7.9 8.6 100
3 Citizen charter is properly implemented in the institution. F 64 38 1 19 29 151
% 42.4 25.2 0.7 12.6 19.2 100
4 Budget plan preparation is well managed and it is well implemented F 55 57 1 11 27 151
% 36.4 37.7 0.7 7.3 17.9 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
The result founded from the opinion survey about accountability in the study area is considered to be less.Concerningimplementation of accountability of administration, the table 14 above shows that about 94 (61.6%) of respondents were strongly disagree and disagreed on the accountability,it confirmed that there is no accountability. The remains respondents 31(20.5%) of the respondents were strongly agree, 23(15.2%) of the respondents were agree and 3(1.3%) of the respondents were undecided. From this it can understood the selected public sectors was not made accountability to their responsibility. It can impels that in the study area there have the problems of accountability. Therefore it was challenging to apply good governance.

Regarding to following accountability in line with having adequate knowledge on polices, principles, and procedures as indicated in table 14 above, about 121( 80.2% )of the respondents’ were strongly disagreed and disagree on its well-practiced and the remains 25 (16.5%)were agree and 5(3.3%) of them were undecided on the issues. This result shows that there was awareness gap on polices, principles and procedures of the government and other concerned bodies on polices, principles and procedures of governments.
Proper application of good governance improves the quality of life of citizens, establishes the legitimacy and credibility of institutions, and secures freedom of information and expression. It also strengthens citizen-friendly and citizen-caring administration.
Regarding Citizen Charter is properly implemented in the institution 102(67.6%) of respondents’ strongly disagreed and disagreed. The remains respondents 29(19.2%) of the respondents were strongly agree, 19(12.6%) of them were agree and 1(0.7%) of the respondents were undecided. Even though to measure the performance of public officials as well as to ensure that the standards are met, implementation of accountability in implying citizen charter is poor in the study area. This can imply that in the study area there is the problem of the implementation of citizen charter to confirm both horizontal and vertical accountability in the study area.
Budget plan preparation is well managed and it is well implemented 112(74.1) of the respondents were strongly disagree and disagree and the remains 1(.7%)were undecided,11(7.3%)were agree and 27(17.9%)were strongly agree this implies that there were problem of budget plan preparation In general, accountability is one of the basic elements of good governance in which federal and local government bodies are obliged to report, explain and be answerable for the consequences of decisions they make on behalf of the citizens they serve. However, implementation of accountability is not well practiced in the study area to verify good governance in shabe sombo woreda. Provide services to citizens. Public sector entities are accountable not only for how much they spend but also for the ways they use the resources with which theyhave been entrusted. In addition, they have an over arch mission to serve the public interest in adhering to the requirements of legislation and government policies. This makes it essential that the entire entity can show the integrity of all its actions and has mechanisms in place that encourage and enforce a strong commitment to moral values and legal fulfillment at all levels. Besides, it can imply that in the study area there have problems of accountability in a way that they are not open to the public.

The data which was collected from informants shows that when the public officials make decisions it is not based on the need and interest of public and they don’t want to (even when the people are invited and variety of thoughts are suggested, it is not taken in to consideration for the better implementation of the decisions) the community at the initials stage and when the decision come in to implementation phase a number of grievance encountered in the governing process. Moreover, the clarity and accessibility of newly enacted policies and decisions are near to the ground.

4.4.5 Participation
Figure 1Participation of society in Governance aspects

Source: Field Survey, 2018

Concerning the participation of the society on the aspect of good governance the above figure shows that 134(88.6% )of the respondents strongly disagreed and disagree while the remaining 10(6.6% )strongly agree and 6(4.0%)were agreed on participation of society in the issue of good governance. The left 1(0.7%) of respondent is undecided on the participation of society on the facet of good governance. Since the course of participation is such broad, based up on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively, good governance also requires that civil society to get the opportunity to participate during the formulation of development strategies and that directly affected communities and groups to participate in the design and implementation of programs and projects. However, result above shows that there is high limitation with participation of society in governance aspects to ensure good governance. This shows that there are challenges of good governance in the study selected sectors in the woreda.
Additionally, in an interview and FGD conducted with concerned leaders, majority of them confirmed that failure to involve the community in government aspects like in designing, planning, formulating projects that benefit the community. This makes increase the ignorance of ownership within the community participatory development. Moreover, majority of the FGD participants intelligently argued that leaders failure in being Model the Way by participating the community with their voice and setting an example. This implies that Leaders in the study area are not supposed to stand up for implementation of good governance with participate the community in aspects of governance

Figure 2 Implementation of Participatory Decision Making

Even though participation refers to the process by which all men and women have a voice in decision making either directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests, figure 2 above shows less in its implementation From the total respondents 98 (64.9%) of the them displayed their perception in strongly disagree and disagree on the item implementation of participatory decision making principles of good governance is well. The other 34(22.5%) and 18(11.9%) were strongly agree and agree respectively. One (0.7%) respondent was undecided on the issues. This implies that there is the lack of implementing good governance principles in the public sectors. From this figure it can implied that there have implementation gap on participatory decision making.

Figure 3 community Involvement in Resource Management

Community involvement in resource management is crucial in increasing ownership. From the figure 3 above concerning the Community involvement on resource management at least 104(68.8%) of the respondents were disagree while 46(30.5%) of the respondents are agree and only 1(0.7%) of respondent was undecided on the issues. This reveals that the whole community were not participate on resource management. The above results implied that in the study area there were the need of community based resource management. To bring the sense of ownership participation is necessary, but its implementation is unsatisfactory.

Data gathered from the interviews and FDG shows that as participation is one of the basic indicators of good governance is that decisions are expected to be made in a collective manner and asked how and to what extent is your engagement is powerful in decision making process, they responded the involvement they made in different dialogue and meeting is not a such influential and they are in a position to take than make decisions and there is a strong word but little action as the public officers don’t want to be criticized for the misleading of the public institutions the reason further is because there is a tendency of those who seize public office suppose as they are the complete ownership of better policies and decisions. Accordingly, there have performance gap on partaking decision making in the study area.
4.4.6 Effectiveness and Efficiency
Table 15: Effectiveness and Efficiency
No Item Frequency/% Strongly disagree disagree Undecided agree Strongly agree Total
1 There is frequent follow up in administration area F 93 11 0 24 23 151
% 61.6 7.3 0 15.9 15.2 100
2 Utilization, maintenance and purchasing system is fair F 109 9 0 18 15 151
% 72.2 6.0 0 11.9 9.9 100
3 adequate knowledge and skill in planning and allocating financial resource is observed F 9 118 0 14 10 151
% 6.0 78.1 0 9.3 6.6 100
4 There is a proper complaint handling system for anybody. F 22 79 6 30 14 151
% 14.6 52.3 4.0 19.9 9.3 100
5 Employees Serve the interests of citizens instead of their own personal interests F 82 55 0 7 7 151
% 54.3 36.4 0 4.6 4.6 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
The concept of good governance should ensure efficiency and effectiveness in the use of resources of a nation having not compromise the crucial needs of citizens. It is the extent to which limited human and financial resources are applied without unnecessary, waste, delay or corruptionand it serves the interests of citizensand handling any complaints properly. Table 15 above shows that about 104(68.9%) of respondent disagreed on the item that says there is frequent follow up in administration areawhereas 47(31.1%) of the respondents agree as there is frequent follow up in administration area. From this it can be concluded that there is follow up but still a gap concerning the application of good governance in the study.
An interview and FGD informants added that if society is keeping on participation in different public dealings then surely they can get the expected result and it can increase the communities’ confidence level and helps to know their environment in a better way. The service users can come across many difficulties through which the community comes to distinguish the positives and negatives of decisions. In addition to this, the consistency of decisions made in line with the rule of law and the legal competence of decision making government bodies and individual task is an imperative factor for the legitimacy of the decisions and therefore for the assurance of good governance. However, it failed to realize that participationprovides a platform to test the public ideas and thoughts. From this it can be concluded that there have follow up but still there is a gap concerning the application of good governance in the study.
Concerning material utilization, maintenance and purchasing system about 118 (78.2%) of the respondents were disagreed and 33(21.8%) of the respondents were agreed. This shows that still there was a problem in purchasing system, maintenances and utilization of material. The result implies that there was violation of rules and regulation of government concerning the abovementioned issue.
Concerning budget plan preparation and its management the above table shows that about 127 (84.1%) of the respondents were disagreed whereas 24(15.9%) of the respondents were agreed on the planning and management. This implied that the use of budget was less managed. These shows that still there were knowledge and skill gap among the administrators of the study area. From the above result implicit that to bring wise use of resources the study area needs to fill the gap. Thus, it needs the way of grasping adequate knowledge and skill in planning and allocating financial resources. In addition to this, data collected from informants implies that adequate knowledge on the policies and procedures plays a leading role in enhancing the implementation level of the existed policies and to the extent possible to reframe policies which are not compatible to the current need and interest of the community. Hence, it can be concluded that adequate knowledge can diminish the implementation gap of good governance.

The respondents were also requested to evaluate the current complaint handling system that ensures effectiveness and efficiency of good governance. As Table 15 above shows, from the total respondents 101(66.9%) of the respondents were strongly disagree and disagree respectively on the item that says there was not a proper complaint handling system for anybody. This indicates majority of the respondents have not satisfied with practices of complaint handling system for anybody. Only 30(19.9%) and 14(9.3%) of respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively to the presence of proper complaint handling system for anybody while the rest 6(4%) respondents were undecided whether failure asthere is a proper complaint handling system for anybody or not. This indicates that the start of complaint handling system but it is not effective.
As it can be seen from Table 15 on the last item, the majority 137(90.7%) of respondents rated as strongly disagree and disagree as employees of the study area serve the interests of citizens instead of their own personal interests while 7(4.6%) and 7(4.6%) of respondents were disagree and strongly disagree respectively on the item that says employees Serve the interests of citizens instead of their own personal interests. Here, amazingly the employees believed that their service delivery is not satisfying the interest of the citizensinstead of their own personal interests.
4.4.7 Equity and Equality
Table 16 Equity and Equality
No Item Frequency/% Strongly disagree disagree Undecided agree Strongly agree Total
1 There is proportion of women in key positions in your institution F 35 88 7 17 4 151
% 23.2 58.3 4.6 11.3 2.6 100
2 Bosses are treating every employee in impartial and equal eyes. F 36 89 5 12 9 151
% 23.8 58.9 3.3 7.9 6.0 100
3 Employees treat all citizens equally irrespective of people’ status, social rank, etc F 46 85 2 10 8 151
% 30.5 56.3 1.3 6.6 5.3 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
According to UN-Habitat the sharing of power leads to equity in the access to and use of resources. Women and men must participate as equals in all decision making, priority-setting and resource allocation processes. Equity and equality in shabe sombo woreda seem to be given less attention. As the above 16 shows on the statement that says there is proportion of women in key positions in the institution, only 21 (13.6%) from all respondents are agreed whereas the 123 (81.5%) of the respondents were in disagreement with the respect to proportion of women in key position in the institution was exist. The reaming 7(4.6%) of respondents were undecided on the issues. This implies that women have been given less attention in sharing of power that leads to equity in the institutions.However, majority of themember of the staff feel that the proportion of women assigning in key positions is necessary.

The informants added that as female were more vulnerable part of the society they are not playing their role in governance process of the woreda affairs, the reason they added is because female are underestimated and they are considered as incapable to hold public office and lead different public institutions because of this reason public institutions are not serving all stake holders. Hence, it can be concluded that there have challenges of good governance and with the intention of the level participation of male and female in decision making is not one and the same in the study area Shabe sombo woreda selected public office.
In line with equal treatment to every employees in the organization, 125(81.5%) of respondents disagree and strongly disagree, on the item bosses are treating every employee in impartial and equal eyes while only 21(13.9%) of respondents were in agreement on the item and 5(3.3%) were undecided. This indicates that bosses are not treating every employee in impartial and equal eyes.
In the above tables the third items the response of the respondents 131 (86.8%) were strongly disagree and 46 (30.5%) of the respondents were disagree as Employees treat all citizens equally irrespective of people’ status, social rank, etc and the others respondents were18 (11.9%) dis agree and 2(1.3%) were undecided. This implies that employees do not treat all citizens equally irrespective of people status, social rank, etc.
4.4.8 Transparency

Table 17 Transparency
Item Frequency/% Strongly disagree disagree Undecided agree Strongly agree Total
1 Governing bodies have transparency F 54 78 5 10 4 151
% 35.8 51.7 3.3 6.6 2.6 100
2 Management flows transparency principle in resource utilization F 26 96 3 19 7 151
% 17.2 63.6 2.0 12.6 4.6 100
3 Stake holders are participating in budget planning F 51 80 9 8 3 151
% 33.8 53.0 6.0 5.3 2.0 100

Concerning transparency the table, 17 above shows that about 54 (35.8%) of respondents were strongly disagree and 132(86.5%) of respondents were disagree while only 10(6.6) of respondent agree and 4(2.6%) of the respondents were strongly agree on the item says Governing bodies have transparency and the left 5(3.3%) of respondents’ undecided on the issues. This confirmed that in the study area there is the problem of the transparency of governing bodies.
Management flows transparency principle in resource utilization 122(80.8%) of respondents’ disagreed and strongly disagreed while7 (4.7%) and 19(12.6%) of the respondents strongly agreed and agreed respectively. So from this the researcher concludes that there is a problem in resource utilization in selected public sectors.
Concerning Stake holders are participating in budget planning 131 (86.8%) of the respondents were Strongly disagree and disagree and 9 (6.0%) of the respondents were undecided and 8(5.3%) and 3(2.0%) of the respondents were Strongly agree and of the respondents were Strongly agree this implies that there were the problem of Stake holders are participating in budget planning in the study area.
Transparency equally means the right of citizens to be informed on the entire decision making process. Over the last fifteen years, good governance has become a major area of focus by the Ethiopian government as it is one of the tools to realize nation’s development goals.
4.4.9 Opportunities to improve effective Good Governance
Table 18 Opportunities to improve effective Good Governance
No
ITEMS Yes/No frequency Percent (%)
12 Can you identify an opportunities in your locality which helps the sector
to improve effective governance?.
Yes 142 94.0
No 9 6.0
Total 151 100

Source: Field Survey, 2018
From the tables above the researcher observed 142(94.0%) of the respondents says yes to the item that request there is an opportunities to improve effective governance in the public sectors in the study area. This implies there so many opportunities to improve effective governance. There are many opportunities in the public sectors to contribute to the success and realization of good governance..in the above table 18 with regard to the question asked in relation to the opportunities in the public sectors s of the woreda for the success and realization of good governance, the formation collected through interviews and discussions also supports the information provided above. According to their views, it is possible to deduce that the greatest concern given for good governance by the government at the country level, strong implementation of the tools of management like BPR and BSC, determination of leadership in taking initiation to realize the principles of good governance. And formation of different groupings and its effective implementation in the process of providing efficient and effective services to the customers are the major opportunities that can effectively be used by the
municipalities to the realization and success of good governance. Identifying the major challenges of good governance and suggesting solutions to cure these challenges is very important in deepening the principles and providing efficient and effective services to the customers and stakeholders of public sectors. Concerning suggesting solutions to the major challenges of good governance, particularly, to the success of good governance in the future in the public sectors of the study area have identified providing series of trainings on the issues of good governance to the officials and the employees of the public sectors. Commitment from the leadership, creating awareness about good governance to the public sectors service users is needed in order to enable them to challenge in the absence of good organizational governance, filling positions with qualified and skilled man power as important solutions. The building institutional capacity of the public sectors, establishing institutional framework for good governance implementation follow up, carrying out various activities of the public sectors benchmarking or centering the principles of good governance, and having published performance standards and manuals of good governance are some of the solutions to the challenges of good governance. Therefore, the overall conclusion is that providing series of trainings on the issues of good governance to the officials and employees of the public sectors , commitment from the leadership, creating awareness on good governance to the public sectors employees and service users in order to enable them to challenge in the absence of good organization governance, and filling positions with qualified and skilled man power are identified as major solutions to the challenges of good governance in the future public sectors so as to provide efficient and effective public services.

CHAPTER FIVE
5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In this part of the paper findings of the research had briefly summarized, more condensed and Comprehensive statements had offered in the form of conclusions and recommendations.
5.1 Summary of the major findings
The main purpose of this study was to investigate challenges of good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda selected public office. More specifically the study had designed to answer the following research questions: What is the current state of application good governance in Shabe Sombo woreda selected public office? What are the main challenges (factors) that constrained society to get and participate in good governance? , What are opportunities that help to create awareness on significance and effect of good governance in Woreda? In order to find out answer for the above research questions the study has used questionnaires and interview as the main data gathering tools also document analysis have been used as supplementary instruments to generate additional information. The collected data were analyzed using simple statistical technique such as percentage, charts, and tables. The major findings of such analysis were briefly summarized as flow:-
Challenges facing the leaders in insuring good governance
Concerning factors influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance hence the majority122 (80.7%) of the respondents agreed and strongly agree that Leader’s lack of decision making skill has own problem and it negatively influences leaders’ decision to improve good governance
Majority141(93.3%) of respondents and both the interviewees and FGD participants confirmed that having clear organizational rules and regulation is poor and less transparency in displaying rules and regulation for others that exacerbate bad governance.,Majority129(85.5%)of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed about interference by external bodies influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance. The majority124 (82.1%) of the respondents were strongly agree and agree on the leaders commitment to insure good governance in public sectors.
The majority134(88.8%) of respondents say, yes, that development demand and good governance have direct relationship to increase to good governance, The majority138(91.4%) of respondents say, Poor implementation capacity of government offices and less awareness Customers were challenges are facing the leaders in insuring good governance 127(84.2%)of the respondents were respondents agreed and strongly agreed.
What are the challenges of good governance principles in implementation?
Regarding the accountability for questions (1, 2, 3,4in table 14) the majority of respondents were strongly disagree and disagreed on the accountability, it confirmed that there is no accountability.
Concerning the participation the majority of the respondents on questions (1, 2, 3 of the above figures) were strongly disagree and disagree.
Regarding the effectiveness and efficiency the majority of the respondents on question number 1,2,3,4,5 in the table 15 above are strongly disagree and disagree.
Regarding the equity and equality questions (1, 2, 3, in the table16) the majority of the respondents were in disagreement with the respect, to proportion of women in key position in the institution was exist, In line with equal treatment to every employees in the organization, on the item bosses are treating every employee in impartial and equal eyes as Employees treat all citizens equally irrespective of people’ status, social rank, etc
,In the study area there is the problem of the transparency of governing bodies, the majority of respondents were strongly disagree and disagree for the questions (1,2,3 in table 17). While management flow transparency principle in resource utilization, Concerning Stake holders are participating in budget planning, the Stakeholders are not participating in budget planning.
What opportunities are there to improve effective governance?
Thos, the majority of the respondents answer yes there is so many opportunities it is possible to deduce that the greatest concern given for good governance by the government at the country level, strong implementation of the tools of management like BPR and BSC, determination of leadership in taking initiation to realize the principles of good governance, and formation of different groupings and its effective implementation in the process of providing efficient and effective services to the customers are the major opportunities that can effectively be used by the public sectors in the woreda to the realization and success of good governance.
5.2 CONCLUSION
Based on the result of this study, institutions assessed have not been found perfectly effective in any of the five good governance indicators used in the study. Instead they were found effective in some of the sub indices of the indicators and ineffective in some other sub indices of the indicators. Therefore in order to avoid generalization by simply using indicators for conclusion, the conclusion of the study has been conducted by focusing on specific sub indices of the indicators used in the study. In addition, in the conclusion and recommendation focus has given for the weak side of institutions. As they are directly representing the society, Civil Society and Community Based Organizations have strong contributions in building of good governance. However, poor achievements were observed on the part of institutions in accommodating them. This greatly affects the overall performance of the institutions and led them to score weak institutional achievements.
In principles good governance organization management needs to be open for public review and evaluation. If the institutions fear public review and evaluation of their administration, by no means they could not be said transparent. For a service provider institution making a survey of customer satisfaction level must be one of the first simple activities, failed to do this lead the failure of the organization as an institution and the institution was not the mechanism to know its failures and success as far as the service it provides to the society. Customers having not giving immediate solutions for their complaints, blame not only the institution but the overall system of the government. It also results the loss of customers and the delay of solution led service users to find solution abnormally such as through bribery for good governance to be occurrence in public institutions total staffs of the institutions should have awareness about good governance this need training.
Institutions need to be aware of concerning their efficiency in providing services so as to increase degree of confidence (trust) of the users. The services being totally independent from political influence encourage users and avoid the sense of discrimination among service users. Politically biased institutions produces conflict and hinder the building of good governance in institutions.
One the most important things that institutions expected to achieve is the establishment of procedures to follow up the implementation of anti corruption policy, what should not be forgotten in the process of achieving good governance in public institutions are the case of corruption. The most dangerous enemy of building democratic governance is corruption.
As the same time the public has to have the freedom of reviewing the budget of institutions. Both the society and community based organizations should have accesses in reviewing budgets of the public institutions. There has to have mechanisms in public institutions which enabled them to review budgets. Corruption as endemic enemy for social, economical and political of any country especial attentions should be given to it. As it strongly deters institutional performance capacity public institutions needs to cautious in eliminating from institutions.
Transparently informing service users whenever changes are going too made in services provisions. This enables service users to adjust themselves on time and avoid later confusions. And do not open room for vicious illegal traders.
Because of the cultural and historical influence that had laid up on them women parts of the population are not in offices and positions as they would have to been and it becomes impossible for a country to bring change and development without active participation of half of the part of the total population of the country. In general absence of giving training and awareness creation of officials and public institution employees through training, workshops and seminars, through pamphlets, journals and regional Medias, create the attitude of low value for good governance both among the civil servants and the community. They consider good governance as an idea that much not necessary for poverty reduction and sustainable development.
As far as equity and equality concerned the research used only one sub indicator, that was proportion of women in key position based the finding the proportion of women in key position accounted below 10%. Due to this institutions in general concluded poor in equity and equality. The possible measures that should be taken for the challenges of good governance and the possible outcomes of the absence or lack of good governance were gathered.
In addition follow up mechanisms concerning implementation of good governance in institutions have great role if they are established by institutions. Creating awareness about good governance especially using regional Medias and let them struggle the absence of good governance in public institutions. Lastly, institutional mechanisms should be established for discussion with the society regarding good governances. The consequent results of poor governance would probably be decrease institutional responsibility discharging capacity, damage society (customers) living and hinders government and it blocks expansion of investments.
Thus, as achieving good governance is one of the main agendas of Ethiopia, different efforts on the part of the government has been conducted recognizing that achieving good governance both at the national and local level directly or indirectly implies economic development and peace and stability .Thus this paper tried to show how good governance is widespread in public sectors in light of the five core good governance principles; participation, effectiveness and efficiency, transparency, accountability, and equity and equality.
In general those described successes and failures of public institutions based on the five good governance indicators have their own positive and negative effects. Successes described by the study promote institutional performances, ensure productivity of institutions creates benefit for the society and facilitates the building of good governance in public institutions. Whereas those failures described by the research strongly affects institutional performance, productivity, and the process of building good governance. To sum, for a country striving to achieve the millennium development goals, the contribution of public institutions played crucial role. For institutions to contribute their parts good governance should one of the principal frameworks in all of their activities.

5.3 RECOMMONDATION
Based on the identified findings, the following possible recommendations may be made for better working of the public sectors in Shabe Sombo woreda
? Since the present condition of good governance is not satisfactory; the public sectors in Shabe Sombo woreda have to establish a separate responsibility that provides training on the issues of good governance.
? In addition, they have to identify the common challenges of good governance in cooperation with their stakeholders. This would help in avoiding the misuse of the scarce human, financial, and material resources and enables to deliver efficient and effective municipal services to the customers. Moreover, it was be better to promote accountability, transparency, participation, efficiency, effectiveness and rule of laws in the public sectors.
? This also enables the public sectors to achieve the objectives and goals for which they are established.

? Based on the findings of the study, with regard to the measures that have to be taken to solve the challenges of good governance, the researcher recommends that the public sectors have to provide series of trainings to the officials, employees and the community to solve the major challenges of good governance related with the attitude of the service providers in the public sectors.
? These trainings must also focus on the issues like principles of good governance; corruption thinking and its effect; and accountability and transparency participation and effectiveness and efficiency issues just to mention few. This, on the other hand, helps the public sector in familiarizing their employees with the concepts, issues and principles of good governance and also contributes to a large extent, to address and solve the major challenges of good governance.
? Properly identifying and wisely using opportunities in the process of exercising good governance is very crucial in providing efficient service to the customers. Therefore, it is recommended that the leadership of the public sectors have to identify the opportunities in their public sector, properly use the greatest attention given to ensure good governance at the country level, work hard, and properly evaluate its progress to strengthen the implementation of the tools of management. The new blooded leadership of the zonal administration has to make a serious follow up, establish proper linkage and also provide adequate support to the municipalities so as to make them strong enough.
? Commitment from the leadership of the public sector, creating awareness about good governance to the civil service providers and users, filling positions with qualified and skilled human power were found very important solutions in the effort to solve the challenges of good governance in the public sectors.
? Implement the policy of citizen charter where specify the specific service provided citizens with in specified time frame failure of officials to deliver service within specified time should be dealt seriously unaccountable and unethical behaviors, it too and should be checked and control properly to make it happened, ombudsman, ant-corruption commission and other similar institutions should be strengthen with more powers and activated. These efforts may have positive impacts towards promoting good governance.
.
In general for governance not to be poor in public institutions training and awareness creation of officials and public institution employees through training, workshops and seminars, through pamphlets, journals and regional Medias is necessary. In addition follow up mechanisms concerning implementation of good governance in institutions have great role if they are established by institutions. Creating awareness about good governance especially using regional Medias and let them struggle the absence of good governance in public institutions. Lastly, institutional mechanisms should be established for discussion with the society regarding good governances. Having not ensuring what are described above could be causes for poor. The consequent results of poor governance would probably be decrease institutional responsibility discharging capacity, damage customers (society) living and hinders government and it blocks expansion of investments.

APPENDIX
ETHIOPIAN CIVIL SERVICE UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE
INSTITUTE OF LEADERSHIP AND GOOD GOVERNANCE
The purpose of this questionnaire is to gather data pertinent to identify challenges of leadership in insuring good governance. The result of the study was be used only for academic purpose. Thus, you are kindly requested to show your cooperation by giving relevant and reliable information for the given interviews.
Thank you in advance for your cooperation!
I Respondents personal information
Sex: 1) Male 2) Female
Age: 1) 20-25 years 2) 26-30 years 3) 31-35 years 4) 36-45 years
5) 46-55 years 6) 56-65 years

Working experience at government office
1) Less than two years 2) 2-5 years 3) 6-10 years 4) above 10 years
What is your education level?
1) Certificate 2) Diploma 3) Degree 4) Masters and above
Your marital states
1) Single 2) Married 3) Divorced 4) Others

I. Questions to identify what factors influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance.
Which of the following was be considered as factors which can influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance? Explain your level of agreement by putting “?” mark in front of each item under the following four:-
1) Disagree 2) Partially Agree 3) Agree 4) strongly agree
No. Questions 4 3 2 1
1 Lack of decision making skill
2 Lack of clear organizational rules and regulation.
3 Interference by external bodies.
4 Leader’s commitment problem.

II. Questions to identify what challenges are facing the leaders in insuring good governance.
5. Can you identify what challenges are facing leaders to insure good governance?
1) Yes
2.) No
If your answer is yes, list those challenges you know on the space provided below.
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6. Can you considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good
governance?
A. Yes B. No
If your answer is no, justify your reason on the space provided below?
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7. Is there a relationship between citizen’s development demand and good governance?
A). Yes, they have a direct relationship.
B). Yes, they have indirect relationship.
C). No, they do not have any relationship.
D). I do not know.

8. Poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one
challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance.
A) Strongly agree. B) Agree. C) Partially agree. D) Disagree.
9. Customers do not know their responsibility when they want services form Government
Offices.
A) Strongly agree. B) Agree. C) Partially agree. D) Disagree.
III. Questions to identify what opportunities are there in the sector to improve effective governance.
10. Can you identify an opportunities in your locality which helps the sector
to improve effective governance. 1) Yes 2) No
If your answer is yes, please least those opportunities on the space provided below.
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IV. Rating scale in significance and challenge of good governance. Indicate the degree
of agreement and disagreement by putting “X” mark in front of each item under the following five:-
No Item Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided agree Strongly agree
1 Accountability of administration are implemented properly
2 Adequate knowledge of polices, principles and procedures are well practiced
3 Citizen charter is properly implemented in the institution.

4 Budget plan preparation is well managed and it is well implemented

5 There is frequent follow up in administration area

6 Utilization, maintenance and purchasing system is fair

7 adequate knowledge and skill in planning and allocating financial resource is observed

8 There is a proper complaint handling system for anybody.

9 Employees Serve the interests of citizens instead of their own personal interests

10 There is proportion of women in key positions in your institution

11 Bosses are treating every employee in impartial and equal eyes.

12 Employees treat all citizens equally irrespective of people’ status, social rank, etc

13 Governing bodies have transparency
14 Management flows transparency principle in resource utilization
15 Stake holders are participating in budget planning
16 Participation of society in Governance aspects
17 Implementation of Participatory Decision Making
18 community Involvement in Resource Management
Questionnaire of Service User Respondent (focus group)
The objective of this research is to assess how prevalent is good governance in public
institutions. The information obtained wasbe confidential. Your responses are of high
value for research purposes and may be important in prescribing policies to improve
governance in public institutions.
1. Does the institution prepare community forum in order to enable the community to discuss issue that mater them?
2. Does the institution encourage you to participate in decision making process that concerns the service user/community?
3. Do you (the community) ever consulted by the institution before a program or policy is implemented that concerns you?
4. Do you have ever invited to evaluate the service provider institution management?
5. Can you easily provide your suggestions, questions, comments and complaints for your service provider institution?
6. Have you ever provides complains in a service provider institution
7. How much do you think that the public services are independent from political interference?
8. Does the service provider institution have a special service delivery mechanism for women and the disadvantaged group?
9. Do the community/ service users have ever got the chance to review the budget of your service provider institution?

Appendix two
Interview guide line for leaders of Selected public sectors of Shabe Sombo of woreda office.
Part I: General information and personal data
Name of office you currently work in————
Data of interview ——————————
a) sex———— b) age—————– c) qualification———————
d) experience as civil servant——————As leader——————-
e) Present positions————
Part II: interview questions
1. What are the basic features of good governance in the sector?
2. What is the role of concerned bodies to implement good governance in the sector?
3. Is there clear demarcation of power and function between the sector and kebeles?
4. Who play dominant role in agenda setting and budget allocation in the sector?
5. Is there check and balance mechanisms amongst government organs in the sector?
6. What are the major challenges of good governance in the sector?
7. Do the residents of the sector participate in political, economical, and social issues?
8. What are the mechanisms to exercise transparency and accountability of the
executives and civil servants?
9. Is there any feedback mechanism to receive comments from the citizens regarding
service delivery?
10. What must be done to improve good governance in the sector? What are the means to tackle the problem of good governance?
Source: It is adapted from the research of MulatChaniylew.