Dealing with Human Trafficking
The contemporary society is confronted with various issues to address. Human trafficking happens to be one of the human rights issues that the contemporary society is grappling to address. The aim of this paper is to examine the nature and form of human trafficking and chart ways in which the issue could be addressed. On the overall, while the society acknowledges the criticality of the issue, the process of taming the rampant human trafficking problem is indeed impeded by the flaws in policies that serve as the impetus for the perpetrators to exploit the underlying loopholes. Therefore, there is the need to streamline these policies.
An Overview of Human Trafficking
The trafficking involves transporting, recruiting or holding persons through the use of deception, fraud, coercion or luring victims to consent to different forms of exploitation. The common forms of exploitation include surrogacy, sex, tissue and organ trafficking and employment (Kara 2012). The adverse motives of human trafficking have often attracted outcry and even resulted in the development of policies to suppress, deter and punish the person involved. Despite these efforts, incidences of human trafficking continue to occur rampantly (Berkovitch, 2013).
The Historical, Political, Social and Religious Aspects of the HR Violation
Human trafficking is rampant. It is a historical crime with various social implications and is not delimited by religion or politics. Sex trafficking is one of the common forms of the illegal trade. As defined by International Labor Organization (2013), sex trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery that involves the coercion of women and children for commercial sex
exploitation. Perpetrators achieve their objectives by using incentives, threats, debt bondage, and torture to compel victims. More focus has been centered on children and women because of their high demand for prostitution, pornography, and child sex tourism (Aguilera, 2012). Human trafficking and sexual slavery have regarded as modern-day slavery because of the associated goss violation of human rights (International Labor Organization, 2013).
Interesting, human trafficking is even common in developed countries. Indeed, according to UNODC (2012), Germany and the United States of America are the leading destinations for children and women trafficked mainly for sexual exploitation. Every year, Germany and the US receive approximately 18 000 victims whom a large percentage, about 96 percent, are females, while the rest are children (International Labor Organization, 2015). However, it has been argued that well over 50 000 victims are trafficked into these countries annually, many of which go unreported. Marchionni (2012) estimates that approximately 700 000 people are trafficked annually across the globe. The increasing incidences of child trafficking and women trafficking are exacerbated by the fact that some parents are also falling into the trap. This move has eased the pressure on perpetrators and made it easy for double trafficking. Besides, traffickers have been camouflaging by changing operation tactics, for instance, posing as massage parlors, spas, and strips club operators (Hepburn and Simon, 2013).
Like developed Western countries, slavery is also noted to be common in the emerging countries, such as the Middle East. In Afghanistan, for instance, women are kidnapped and trafficked to other countries. The perpetrators use the ruse to lure women and children. In some cases, the travel documents of the victims are confisticated to make them desperate. The victims are harassed, raped or forced to work without pay. The gangs are also shifting their focus from
drug trafficking to human trafficking because of the less likelihood of being caught. There have been concerns that the rates of human trafficking would overtake those of drug trafficking (Kara, 2012).
The Section of Human Rights Violated
The human trafficking amounts to gross violation of different provisions of human rights. The violation of the rights does stop at trafficking but extends to how the traffickers treat the victims. For instance, article 1 outlines that all human beings “are born free born free and equal in dignity and rights” and need to treat each other in the spirit of brotherhood (United Nation, 2015, pp 4). However, human trafficking denies people this right because it entails treating the victims unfairly and denying them freedom.
Article 2 accords the freedom, regardless of color, nationality, age, or any other dimension of status, but traffickers trample upon this provision by holding persons against their will. Article 3 outlines that everyone has a right to life, security and liberty, but traffickers often rob the victims this right by killing some victims and subjecting to atrocious acts that threaten their lives. Article 4 outlines that no person should be subjected to slavery or servitude, but human trafficking does so. The practice entails subjecting people to forced labor or forcing them to sex. Article 5 states that “no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment” (United Nation, 2015, pp 8). However, the traffickers violate this right by treating people in a cruel way.
A Look at the Nature and Form of Policies
A look at the nature and form of the systems reveal that all the three countries acknowledge the criticality of the issue and striving to address the problem by using legal enforcement. However, this process is constrained by different factors.
One of the outstanding problems is the weaknesses in the enforcement system, an issue that is common to the United States of America, Germany, and Afghanistan. While several people have been tried and even some convicted in these countries, the weak legal systems characterized by porous borders, corrupt public officials, and non-commitment by immigration departments and law enforcement agencies have also allowed organized criminal groups and networks to practice the illegal trade.
Marchionni (2012) has noted that this is the major factor in the politically stable countries such as the United States and Germany. The lack of adequate legislation, political will, and full commitment by government officials to enforce existing laws has also served as incentives for the perpetrators to carry on the crime. While there has been a call for countries to adopt drastic measures to address the issue, these countries have been slow in implementing informed reforms to combat human trafficking (UNODC, 2012). This point is indeed supported by Kara (2012), who notes that authorities are taking a long time to come up with proper legislation and enforcement reforms to keep abreast with the tactics that human traffickers are using to outflank police.
The case of Afghanistan is relatively unique compared to the United States and Germany. According to Berkovitch (2013), the unstable governments, characterized by the existence of civil wars, lawlessness, and armed groups have been push factors for trafficking and migration.
These situations have been attributed to hostile political environments and war. Armed conflicts have notably led to the massive impoverishment of people. Wars have also bred scores of orphans and streets, rendering families more susceptible to trafficking because of the incentives it promises. At the same time, lawlessness has created the allowance for the criminals to take the advantage and traffic people with minimal interruption. Indeed, according to the UNODC (2012), 1.5 billion people reside in countries affected by violent conflict, which also happens to be the major target of human trafficking trade. Occupations of radical groups such as the Taliban in Afghanistan have been some of the notable examples of lawless environments encouraging human trafficking (Marchionni, 2012). The authorities have been complacent in acceding to the call by the international community to tame human trafficking, providing a haven for traffickers to use as channels to global market. Corruptions in the government institutions, lack of proper legislation and policies have encouraged sex trafficking. The armed gangs have resulted in a humanitarian crisis that has robbed some societies of resilience, causing them to become vulnerable to human trafficking because of desperation.
There are various interconnected factors that are to blame for rampant human tracking. These factors span the political, economical, governmental, and societal aspects. Ideally, human trafficking is a networked crime in which criminals from different regions communicate and orgaanize the crimes. In some cases, the police are part of the network. The growthg of strong gangs have also enhnacing the incidences of trafficking. These grups have been involved in the kidnap of children and women in exchange for armory (UNODC, 2012). Some social factors such as friends and close family members colluding with traffickers to entice trick victims have
also been noted. As Kara (2012) observes, many victims of trafficking have admitted been lured for overly trusting the persons who were close to them.
Another challenge is globalized nature of human trafficking. The problem is mainly a cross-border crime, involving a network of people stationed in different countries. The activities of human trafficking can be carried out online with perpetrators situated in different parts of the globe (Berkovitch, 2013). The levels of awareness are also limited, yet the traffickers are taking advantage of the vulnerable population with a promise of the improved life (Aguilera, 2012). Therefore, it is clear that the policies are overlooking some of the factors that serve as the impetuses for human trafficking.
In this regard, it can be inferred that the policies aimed at dealing with human trafficking are limited in different ways. The efforts are constrained by the challenges in the legal enforcement systems, including the court process and sentencing. There is also an association between drug gangs and human trafficking in the sense that many perpetrators are conducting both crimes, while some are even opting to engage in human trafficking because it has fewer risks. The lack of awareness of the nature and form of human trafficking may also be blamed on the factors associated with the prevalence of the crime.
In light of these points, several recommendations can be made for practice. First, there will be need for the governments to review the loopholes within its enforcement units with the aim of restoring sanity and taming corruption and incompetency that serve as an impetus for trafficking. Secondly, there is the need for cross-border collaboration between the involved
countries. The policymakers need to recognize the need of working together with other countries, considering the human trafficking is more globalized than localized. As part of the solution, the policymakers should strive to draft laws that are objective and compatible with other countries to encourage cohesion. Thirdly, there is the need to help stabilize the countries ravaged by tyranny and terrorism, especially considering the relationship between the two elements. Moreover, the society needs to embrace the informed policies to sensitize people while addressing the socioeconomic disparities that make women and children vulnerable, and at the same time, verse with new strategies human traffickers are using to outflank enforcements. More importantly, these reforms call for the society to nurture committed leadership. It is hoped that, if well adopted, these changes will go a long way in taming the problem.
In conclusion, human trafficking, especially sex trafficking, is rampant across the world. In every year, a significant number of people, including women and girls, are trafficked across the world for sex. Interestingly, this social problem does not spare the level of developments a society belongs. Indeed, as it has been seen, even the developed countries such as the United States and Germany are troubled by the sex human trafficking. Afghanistan, on the other hand, Afghanistan is an example of developing countries. An examination of the nature and form of policy implications on arresting the state of human trafficking in the case of the three countries brings into various light issues that are worth considering. It is worth noting that several of these issues are common to the three countries, although many tend to be distinct from the three elements. More, the United States and Germany share many of the issues. As the discussion has
revealed, the most common problem is that the enforcement challenges. While all the three countries recognize human trafficking is a violation of human rights.
They have further enacted the laws that consider the practice a criminal act. However, implementing these regulations is subject to the limitations of corruption, bribery, and favoritism. In all the cases, the human traffickers tend to operate in networks that command certain power and influence. They can use their financial abilities to corrupt the enforcement officers and the juries. They can also use their armed gang capabilities to silence the privy officers. The second common problem is the global nature of the human trafficking. Essentially, human trafficking spans networks of groups that operate across the borders. The nature of this issue implies that success would only be realized if there is cooperation between the involved countries. However, this is seldom the case. The interaction is partly impeded by lack of will of the governments, considering that some powerful members are involved. Besides, the cross-border cooperation is hindered by the incompatibility of laws. The case of Afghanistan represents a relatively different case of the flaws of the policies. It is noted that the lawlessness and the instability of the government are to blame for the accentuating sex trafficking, allowing women and children to be kidnapped. The existence of terrorist gangs has been characterized by heightened levels of lawlessness that are so critical for the government to cope. More so, the techniques that the perpetrators are using are relatively advanced, and to a certain extent, can be argued to be outflanking the law. It is recommended that the global community and government develop enforcement policies that would arrest the problem.