Definition of Development
Development means change towards the betterment. It is a positive approach which can make
better for the man, for the society and for the country. It refers to the planned and calculative transform towards a terminal condition. Development is directed towards the dissatisfied conditions to satisfied condition. Hence, development is a continuous process of transform involving social, political and administrative aspects.
Development implies enhance in living standards, better health and good for all and the achievement of whatever is regarded as general good for society at large. Development is used in three main senses a vision or measure of a desirable society, a historical process of social change and purposeful effort for progress by development agencies. Its a multi-dimensional process which involves transformation in structures, attitudes and institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, reduction of inequality and the eradication of absolute poverty. Development as ‘social transformation’ or fundamental or structural change – for example, an increase in income.
Development as ‘managed change’ or intervention and action, aimed at improvement, regardless of whether betterment is, in fact, actually achieved.
Definition of underdevelopment
Underdevelopment refers to a situation in which resources are being actively used, but used in a method which profit dominant states and not the poorer states in which the assets are found. Undevelopment refers to a condition in which resources are not being used. For example, the European colonists viewed the North American continent as an undeveloped area: the ground was not dynamically cultivated on a balance consistent with its potential. The term underdevelopment refers to that state of an economy where levels of living of stacks are very low due to very low levels of per capita income follow-on from low levels of output and high growth rates of population. Underdeveloped countries are now known as ‘developing countries’ signifying that such nations are capable of and are in fact making serious efforts to beat their problems of poverty and low income.
Some Development theories
• Modernization theory
• Dependency theory
? Modernization theory: Now we discuss modernization theory, actually “Modernization refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transform the lives of individuals”.
? It’s a crude view would hold that “modernity” is the endpoint of a process called “modernization.”
? “modernity” is measured by “urbanization,” “industrialization,” “literacy,” and so on
? “image of the modern” has been one of “literate people living in cities making a living by manufacturing
Modernization theory is a theories used to clarify the system of modernization inside social orders. The theory centers at the inside variables of a nation while accepting that, with help, “traditional” nations can be conveyed to advancement in an the same way from created nations have. Modernization theory goings-on to recognize the social factors for social advance and improvement of social orders. Modernization theory focuses on the procedure of progress as well as the reactions to that change. It also takes a gander at hidden flow while alluding to social and social structures and the adjustment of new advances.
Origin of modernization theory
The essential standards of modernization can be gotten from the Idea of Progress, which developed in the eighteenth century with the possibility that individuals themselves could create and change their general municipal. French scholar Marquis de Condorcet built up the idea that innovative progressions and practical changes can empower changes in moral and social qualities.
Major proposition of Modernization theory
? It supports mechanical procedures which help to control over their surroundings and in the long run goad social progress.
? It looks at interior dynamics while referring to social and cultural structures..
? It built up the possibility of social advancement which shows how social orders and societies create after some time. Social orders advance through a few phases by and large beginning at a oversimplified level and subsequently forming into a more mind boggling level.
? Societies adapt to their nearby environments, but they interact with other societies
which further put in to their advancement and development.
Economic theory of Modernization
There are different improvement Theories of modernization in the event of financial advancement. As indicated by economic point of view, the theory of Walt Whitman Rostow (W.W. Rostow) is most vital in economic advancement.
W.W. Rostow’s Stages of Growth model
The Rostow’s Stages of Growth show is one of the major Historical models of economic development. It was published in 1960 at the largeness of the Cold War and with the subtitle “A Non-Communist Manifesto””. He recognizes the model into five phases of development. Through five phases how society’s development is done is appeared by the accompanying figure
• The traditional society
• The pre-condition for take-off
• The take-off.
• The drive to maturity.
• The age of high-mass consumption.
• The traditional society: Traditional society refers to a society characterized by>output not traded or recorded >high levels of agriculture and labour intensive agriculture. There have Absence of science & technology but presence of agriculture. As a example ethopia.
• Low productivity cultivation is a large % of the economy
• Political power dominates economic power
• Low rates of savings ( < 5% of GDP)
• Inefficient property rights
• Limited technology
The pre-condition for take-off: It refers to a society characterized by Presence of science & technology. They have been used modern technology. As a example Srilanka.
• Transfer resources from agriculture to manufacturing
• Shift from regional to national/international focus
• Must shift away from having children
• People must be rewarded not for their “connections” but their economic abilities
Take-off : It refers to a society is ready for development . As a example India,Industrial revolution, joined directly to fundamental changes in the methods of production. Rostow describes this stage as a short period of severe growth, its occurred about ( 20-30 years) of intensive growth. At this stage, industrial growth may be linked to primary industries. The level of technology required will be low.
The drive to maturity: Rostow characterizes it as the period when a general society has viably connected the scope of present day innovation to the majority of its assets. As the economy matures, technology plays an increasing role in developing high value added products This stage happens over a long timeframe, as ways of life rise, use of modernization increments, and the national economy develops and broadens
Growth becomes self-sustaining – wealth generation enables further investment in value adding industry and development ,Industry more diversified ,Increase in levels of technology utilized
The age of High Mass-Consumption: Here, a nation's economy thrives in an industrialist structure, portrayed by large scale manufacturing and consumerism. The age of high mass consumption refers to the period of contemporary comfort afforded many western nations, in which consumers concentrate on long-lasting goods, luxurious goods.. Generally, the United States is achieved this stage in the first place, trailed by other western European countries, and after that Japan in the 1950s.
Now we discuss about Dependency Theory, Dependency theory critically analyses economic development of both industrial and developing countries and shows that neither can be understood unless their global interdependence is taken into account.