INSTITUTE OF PHYSIOTHERAPY AND REHABILITATION SCIENCES LIAQUAT UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES JAMSHORO RESARCH SYNOPSIS TITLE ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION OF UNDERGRADUATE PHYSIOTHERAPY STUDENTS TOWARDS RESEARCH Research Group “C” JAWAD AHMED 14IPRS09 SUNDAS GUL14IPRS36 MAHEEN BASHIR 14IPRS11 NAVISHA DHERWANI 14IPRS16 PREH PATHAN 14IPRS18 Supervisor

INSTITUTE OF PHYSIOTHERAPY
AND
REHABILITATION SCIENCES

LIAQUAT UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES
JAMSHORO

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RESARCH SYNOPSIS
TITLE
ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION OF UNDERGRADUATE PHYSIOTHERAPY STUDENTS TOWARDS RESEARCH
Research Group “C”
JAWAD AHMED 14IPRS09
SUNDAS GUL14IPRS36
MAHEEN BASHIR 14IPRS11
NAVISHA DHERWANI 14IPRS16
PREH PATHAN 14IPRS18

Supervisor:
Dr: Sikander Ali Sangrasi, PT

DATE OF SUBMISSION: _________________________________

_____________________ _____________________
Director/Incharge IPRS Deputy Director IPRS

INDEX
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….….i
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1,2
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES………………………………………….……………………………………….…………..…..3
RATIONALE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..….3
CHAPTER 2
METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………………………………………………..………4
STUDY DESIGN………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
STUDY SETTING……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….4
STUDY DURATION …………………………………………………….…………………………………………….……..4
SAMPLING METHOD…………………………………………………………………………………………………….…4
INCLUSION CRITERIA……………………………………………………………….……………………………….……4
EXCLUSION CRITERIA……………………………………………………………………..…………………….………..4
DATA ANALYSIS……………….……………………………………………………………………………………………4
CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………………………………………..4
REFERENCES…………………………………………….………………….…..5,6
QUESTIONNAIRE……………………………………………………………….7,8

ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this study is to identify the attitudes and perceptions of undergraduate physical therapy students regarding research.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this descriptive study are to:
(1) investigate the attitudes and perceptions of physical therapy students regarding research,
(2) find out their intention to engage in research,
(3) identify the research anxiety in Physical therapy students and
(4) to identify the factors that affect the process of their engagement in research projects.
METHODOLOGY: A descriptive type of cross-sectional study will be conducted on 197 students of Doctor of Physiotherapy. It consists of a 12-item questionnaire, designed to probe the students’ attitudes and perceptions about research, their level of comfort and confidence in applying research findings published in the literature and their personal knowledge of research. The questionnaire will be completed by the students immediately after explaining the need of this research. The subjects will complete the questionnaire after completing four years of physical therapy education.
CONCLUSION:.The study aims to spread research culture, promotion of the scientific approach and development of research skills in health care professionals and utilization of research findings in improving the effectiveness of health care system and decision-making.
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Physiotherapy is a field in which we deal with the conditions where people suffer from different musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. Physiotherapy helps to promote mobility and quality of life through physical interventions and copes with disability and impairments 8.
The strength of physical therapy depends on research to extend its scientific basis for practice and patient healthcare, leading to Evidence based practice or clinically intended practice, a vision advocated by the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). Medical Research is an essential place in developing practice and ensuring effective care. It is important to promote critical thinking and reasoning skills in physiotherapy students. It helps to develop their knowledge and enhance the level of patient care. Although individual studies addressing students’ engagement in research are available, a synthesis of results in this area
has not yet been undertaken. This gap in evidence motivated us to conduct a research on Attitude and perception of undergraduate Physiotherapy students towards research. Such analysis in this area ought to provide insights into the issues related to students’ involvement in research, which are otherwise not readily available. To its end, we shall be able to analyze physiotherapy students’ interest in conducting research and the factors affecting it 8. Because of the significance of research, its application in health care delivery and the emphasis on evidence-based practice, the findings of this study could contribute to the development of a curriculum in physical therapy that should emphasize research and evidence-based practice in physical therapy 15.

Research is important for a Physiotherapist to:
1) Provide effective physical therapy services.
2) Helps to make intelligent clinical decisions by promoting critical thinking.
3) Provide information for successful treatment.
4) Improve patient’s health by making intelligent clinical decisions based on research findings.
5) Provide valid answer to the physiotherapist questions.
6) Helps to improve health policies.
Undergraduate research (UR) has become an integral part of medical education and has influenced the performance of medical practitioners, yielding positive results in the development of important skills, including critical analysis and leadership, whether or not the professional pursues an academic or research career10. Providing physiotherapy students with the opportunity to conduct research and to build evidence helps to promote clinical practice, change attitudes towards research and enhance research skills.9 As a clinical professional, the physiotherapist does not only need to obtain skills and knowledge, but also to update his knowledge and regularly seek the ways of improving his treatment modalities11. The effectiveness of research education depends on students’ ability to use their research competencies in their future professional practice. The survey study shows that students’ intention to use research in their future professional practice correlates highly with their perceptions and attitudes toward research, whereas research activities and research context have less of an effect. So in order to extend the functionality of the integration of research into higher education, students’ research attitudes should be considered.12 Supportive conditions for physiotherapists’ use of research analysis exist at multiple beneficial levels. Research use in physiotherapy appears to be an interactive and interpretative social process that involves a good interaction with colleagues and patients 13. The first factor we assessed was research usefulness,
Most of the students considered it useful and helpful 2. The second factor regarding research anxiety and difficulty showed that students considered it more complicated and that they would perhaps make a lot of mistakes, and to half of the concepts were difficult to understand 1. The application of research in physiotherapy has been found to be associated with individual factors such as attitudes, knowledge, skills, higher levels of education. These factors are described as:
1. Modi?able organizational factors like access to evidence and social control support
2. Non-modi?able factors like younger age and less time in the profession.
These factors have been established in cross-sectional analysis which precludes the causative inferences regarding the mechanisms by which evidence based practice can be achieved 14..The methodology, studied Population, Randomization, Statistical analysis, clinical significance and the limitations of the study has to be critically appraised before reaching the conclusion. It demands the students in the health care profession to have a qualitative interpretive description in clinical physiotherapy education. We noted three integrative themes from the analysis:
1. Attempt to apply evidence-based practice
2. Novices in clinical practice
3. Prioritize practice experience
As research practice emerged and grew, healthcare providers and new graduates were assumed to use and be confident in applying evidence based practice skills3. This demonstrates that teaching research methodology is inclined towards qualifying students with the skills to conduct research4. Reflection serves as a model for life-long learning by engaging students in research studies what they learnt in a given context and how they will apply that research work in future5. Students who had not come across any form of systematic training on research demonstrate low level of research which is comparable to the research level of control group in our study 6. The factors like interest, fluency in English language, writing skills, etc may influence students’ performance. More practice sessions and repeated exercises along with constructive feedback from mentors may introduce deep reflecting skills leading to more productive transformative learning in students7. Moreover clinical instructors should influence students during clinical education, as they are the potential role models in evidence-based practice. Actions from academic and clinical settings are needed to improve competence in research practice among clinical instructors, and future research is needed to investigate the effect of such efforts on students’ behaviour1.
1.2 AIMS:
The overall aim of this study is to identify the attitude and perception of undergraduate physical therapy students towards research related activities.
1.3 OBJECTIVES:
? To find the attitude and perception of Undergraduate Physiotherapy students towards research
? To observe the quality of research in their education

1.4 RATIONALE:
The ultimate purpose of this study is to improve knowledge and skills to practice research in health care in the final year students of physiotherapy, that will improve the health standards and aid to their clinical expertise.

CHAPTER 2
METHODOLOGY
2.1 Study Design
The study design is Descriptive cross-sectional.

2.2 Study Setting
The study will take place in the institutes of Physiotherapy and rehabilitation sciences of Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Isra university and Peoples University of Medical and Health sciences for women Nawabshah on the undergraduate students of physiotherapy. The participants will be selected for the study as per the criteria.

2.3 Study duration
It will take us approximately 6 months to carry on the study on different university students.

2.4 Sample size
The sample size will be calculated by undergraduate registered population in institute of Physiotherapy LUMHS Jamshoro, Isra University Hyderabad and People University Nawabshah. 197 participants will be selected as sample in this study.

2.5 Sampling technique
Simple random sampling technique was used in the study. There will be 197 students of Doctor Of Physiotherapy. They shall be asked for their perceptions regarding research education in their curriculum. Each questionnaire consists of 12 questions and is sub divided into three factors:
1. Research usefulness in profession
2. Research anxiety
3. Self reported knowledge and behavior

2.6 Inclusion criteria
The students of different universities currently enrolled in Doctor of Physiotherapy (DPT) program studying in fourth and final year.

2.7 Exclusion criteria
The students of first year to third year are excluded from the study.

2.8 Data Analysis
Statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 program is used for the statistical analysis. Data will be represented in a graphical form using pi chart and bar chart.

Conclusion:
In this study we have attempted to assess the self reported perception of physiotherapy students towards research. Research output may improve with the proper guidance.

References
1. Papanastasiou EC, Schumacker R. Rasch rating scale analysis of the Attitudes Toward Research Scale. J Appl Meas. 2014;15:189-99.
2. AlGhamdi KM, Moussa NA, AlEssa DS, AlOthimeen N, Al-Saud AS. Perceptions, attitudes and practices toward research among senior medical students. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2014 Apr 1;22(2):113-7.
3. Olsen NR, Bradley P, Lomborg K, Nortvedt MW. Evidence based practice in clinical physiotherapy education: a qualitative interpretive description. BMC medical education. 2013 Dec;13(1):52.
4. Burger M, Louw QA. Integrating evidence-based principles into the undergraduate physiotherapy research methodology curriculum: Reflections on a new approach. African Journal of Health Professions Education. 2014;6(2):198-202.
5. Smith S, Martin J. Practitioner capability: Supporting critical reflection during workbased placement–A pilot study. Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning. 2014 Oct 20;4(3):284-300.
6. Ottenberg AL, Pasalic D, Bui GT, Pawlina W. An analysis of reflective writing early in the medical curriculum: The relationship between reflective capacity and academic achievement. Medical teacher. 2016 Jul 2;38(7):724-9.
7. Devi V, Abraham RR, Kamath U. Teaching and assessing reflecting skills among undergraduate medical students experiencing research. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2017 Jan;11(1):JC01.

8. Naing C, Wai VN, Durham J, Whittaker MA, Win NN, Aung K, Mak JW. A systematic review and meta-analysis of medical students’ perspectives on the engagement in research. Medicine. 2015 Jul;94(28).

9. Scurlock-Evans L, Upton P, Upton D. Evidence-based practice in physiotherapy: a systematic review of barriers, enablers and interventions. Physiotherapy. 2014 Sep 1;100(3):208-19.
10. Oliveira CC, de Souza RC, Abe ÉH, Móz LE, de Carvalho LR, Domingues MA. Undergraduate research in medical education: a descriptive study of students’ views. BMC medical education. 2014 Dec;14(1):51.

11. Ghugare N, Gawande S. Survey of Participation, Perception, Attitude and Barriers towards Research amongst Clinical Physiotherapist. INDIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL THERAPY. 2017 Apr 2;5(1):6-10.
12. Griffioen DM. The influence of undergraduate students’ research attitudes on their intentions for research usage in their future professional practice. Innovations in Education and Teaching International. 2018 Jan 20:1-1.
13. Dannapfel P, Peolsson A, Nilsen P. What supports physiotherapists’ use of research in clinical practice? A qualitative study in Sweden. Implementation science. 2013 Dec;8(1):31.
14. Nilsen P, Bernhardsson S. Towards evidence-based physiotherapy–research challenges and needs. Journal of physiotherapy. 2013 Sep 1;59(3):143-4.
15. 25 Aljadi SH, Alrowayeh HN, Alotaibi NM, Taaqi MM, Alquraini H, Alshatti TA. Research amongst physical therapists in the state of Kuwait: participation, perception, attitude and barriers. Medical Principles and Practice. 2013;22(6):561-6.

APPENDIX 1

Title of study: ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION OF UNDERGRADUATE PHYSIOTHERAPY STUDENTS TOWARDS RESEARCH

Researchers: Jawad, Maheen, Navisha, Preh, Sundas

Please read and complete this form carefully. If you are willing to participate in this study, ring the appropriate responses and sign and date the declaration at the end.

If have had the research satisfactorily Yes/No
explained to me in verbal and / Or written
Form by the researcher.

I understand that the research will involve: Yes/No
A Questionnaire to be filled by me regarding
Evidence Based Practice.

I understand that any material of me will be Yes/No
used solely for research purposes and will

be destroyed on completion of your
research.

I understand that you will be discussing the Yes/No
progress of your research with others at
Institute of Physiotherapy ; rehabilitation
science, LUMHS Jamshoro.

I freely give my consent to participate in this research study and have been given a copy of this form for own information

Name: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Student of DPT :……………………………………………………………………………………………..

University:…………………………………………………..…………………….………

Participant’s signature: ………………………. Date: …….………..

APPENDIX 2

Factor 1: Research usefulness for profession

Questions

1 Research training should be a part of undergraduate curriculum

2 Research should be incorporated in professional training

3 Performing research is useful and valuable for my profession

4 The skills acquired in research will be helpful to me in future

Factor 2:Research anxiety

Questions

5 Performing research is stressful

6 I feel insecure concerning the analysis of research data

7 I find it difficult to understand the concepts of research

Factor 3 :Self reported knowledge and behavior

Questions

8 Most students benefit from research

9 Research-orientated thinking plays an important role in everyday life

10 Research is important to discover new things

11 The research findings published in professional journals are relevant to my clinical practice

12 I personally like to be involved in research process in the future on regular basis.