INTRODUCTION Indonesia is centrally-located along ancient trading routes between the Far East

INTRODUCTION Indonesia is centrally-located along ancient trading routes between the Far East, South Asiaand the Middle East, resulting in many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions, includingHinduism,Buddhism, Confucianism,Islamand Christianity, all strong in the major trading cities. Indonesia is a country with a mix of interesting cultures, exotic foods, and beautiful places. That is why it is quite a waste if the world never knows about Indonesia, and then here comes the role of Indonesian prime minister to boost the touristic values of Indonesia and brings out the best of Indonesia in the eyes of the world. Furthermore, values of Indonesian Culture every culture has its own assumptions and values about what it believes and considers right. When it comes to assumptions and values, people tend to be subjective because the value itself has been planted in them since they were young. Those values are being planted in their mind until they believe in it as if it is the right one. It also happens in my home countrys values. Tradition believes older people have earned respect, because they have survived. Also, Indonesian believe many resources make life easier. In Indonesian education, two values from these assumptions are the teacher is an elder and is always right. The Japanese culture is unlike any other in the world. It has long been known for its excellence in education and its strong background of family and religion. The Japanese way of life is an assortment of art, literature, music and more and it is nothing short of spectacular. In this research, some of the different aspects of the Japanese life style as well as take a cultural look into the life of the Japanese. The Japanese culture is one that is rich within an historical and traditional context. Many of the traditional practices established hundreds of years ago can be seen today in modern Japan and are a direct reflection of significant historical accounts. The role of woodblock art in Japanese culture is one such reflection to which many historical references and traditions were recorded and captured in pictorial form. DISCUSSION I) HOFSTEDES DIMENSIONS OF INDONESIAN Hofstede define dimension to make differentiation on national culture which contains of power distance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus feminism, uncertainty avoidance and Confucian Dynamism ( Long term orientation versus Short term orientation). Each dimension is measured by index that represents the level of the dimension which can be indicator of the cultural life of society in the country. Based on Hofstede index, the highest dimension in Indonesi is power distance, the second is uncertainty avoidance and the third is masculinity and the lowest is individualism. The combination of highest index in power distance and uncertainty avoidance give indication that leader have strong power and authority to control their employee based on law, rules and regulation developed by leaders power. The masculinity dimension in Indonesia is fairly high. If compared to Asian average of Hofstedes dimension, it is slightly differences. The lowest index in individualism which means that Indonesian tends to be collectivism. Hofstedes dimension of national culture in Indonesia can be guidance to adapt in the working environment. Regarding on highest index in power distance, it need high loyalty and obedience to the boss as a leader. It is expected that employee should obey to the boss. They must follow the instruction or order from the boss without any refutations, although sometimes the instruction is not appropriate with employees mind. Sometimes, employee can refuse the instruction but it is rarely occurred. Threrefore, all of decisions depend on the boss. Regarding on masculinity dimension, working environment in Indonesia tend to lead to masculinity rather than femininity. It reflects on the characteristics to give priority of value on assertive, acquisition of money, goods and competition. In working place they tend to show the ownership of their possession such as new car, emblishment, new mobile phone. Low score in individualism show the attitude of self interest and family as a common interest in a group. Most of it is made jointly to the group, which needs high emotional dependence to each other. HOFSTEDES DIMENSION OF JAPANESE Power distance dimension deals with fact that all individuals in societies are not equal and it express the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities amongst. Power distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. Japanese are always conscious of their hierarchial position in any social setting and act accordingly. However, it is not as hierarchical because of their business experience of painstakingly slow decision making process. Another example of not so high Power Distance is that Japan has always been a meritocratic society. There is a strong notion in the Japanese education system that everybody is born equal and anyone can get ahead. Individualism is the degree of interdependent a society maintains among its members. It has to do with whether peoples self image is defined in terms of I or W. In individual societies people are supposed to look after themselves and their direct family only. Certainly Japanese society shows many of the characteristics of a collectivistic society. The most popular explanation for this is that Japanese society does not have extended family system which forms a base of more collectivistic societies such as China and Korea. Japan has been a paternalistic society and the family name and asset was inherited from father to the eldest son. However, company loyalty to their companies while Chinese seem to job hop more easily. While in more collectivistic culture, people are loyal to their inner group by birth such as their extended family and their local community. Masculinity is a high score on this dimension indicates that the society will be driven by competition, achievement and success being defined by the winner and a value system that starts in school and continues throughout organizational life. A low score Feminine on the dimensions means that the dominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life. A feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd is not admirable. Uncertainty avoidance is has to do with the way that a society deals with the facts that the future can never be known should we try to control the future. This ambiguity brings with it anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs and institution that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on uncertainty avoidance. Under these circumstances Japanese learned to prepare themselves for any uncertain situation. This goes not only for the emergency plan and precautions for sudden natural disasters but also for every other aspects of society. Managers ask for all the detailed facts ad figures before taking any decision. This high need for uncertainty avoidance is one of the reasons why changes are so difficult to realize in Japan. Long term orientation dimension describes howevery society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently. Normative societies, which score low on this dimension for example as prefer to maintain time honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion. Indulgence is one challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past is the degree to which small children are socialized. This dimension is defined as the extent to which people try to control their desires and impulses. REACTION TOWARDS PERCEPTION OF JAPANESE The image of a modern Japan has been promoted along with a kind of anonymous Japan with lots of yen and high quality products such as cars and consumer electronics. That image has strongly influenced foreigners view abroad that is Japan being a very dynamic economy but quite anonymous without promoting any specific image of Japanese people. Rather, the image has been affected more by companies of Japan or more by products from Japan. More recently, Japan has shifted towards cultural exchanges as one of the pillars in foreign policy along with security and economic cooperation. As a result, have seen the promotion of culture abroad through various governmental organizations including programs of cultural exchange protection of world heritage sites, promotion of cultural diversity for minorities and some of which are linked to security as exemplified by the case of Japans effort to protect Angkor Wat, while playing an important role in promoting security and resolution of the crisis in Cambodia. By promoting Japan as an economic power in the past the backlash now is there because Japan is obviously in some kind of crisis on the economic side. The image of Japan for decision making people is quite negative possibly comparable to the image of Argentina. Althrough Japan and Argentina are totally different in economic size and strength and it is the image of Japan that is serious crisis. In reality there are many sectors that have been doing relatively well such as cellular phones in Japan but the image of perception of Japan is negative. This is one thing that really have to know. REACTION TOWARDS PERCEPTION OF INDONESIAN Indonesian also perceive the West as being hypocritical being critical on the one hand but exploitative on the other. Furthermore, Western nations sometimes attach conditions to the provisions of aid such as the maintenance of satisfactory human rights records. Once again, is seen by many Indonesians as an example of Western hypocrisy bearing in mind the past huma rights violations in the treatment of African-American in the US and aborigines in Australia and the Indonesian perception that these violations continue today. For instance, while the majority of Australian and the Indonesian perception that these violations continue today. For instance, while the majority of Australians are not racist and the historical legacy of the cultural genocide of aborigines lingers and the land issue of aborigines continues to fester. But while Indonesians are critical of the West, they also engage in a common contradiction exhibited by former colonised peoples. they long to acquire the knowledge and abilities of the west and they seek to emulate the lifestyle of those they consider to be superior, in other words the neo-colonisers but, at the same time, they are resentful of Westerners power possessions and control of resources. REACTION TOWARDS STEREOTYPE OF INDONESIAN 1) INDONESIANS LAID TOURIST TRAPS ALL OVER THEIR COUNTRY Some tourist have left the country with stories about traps or even scams, causing some people to fixate on such reports as a representation of the countrys tourism landscape. And while, unfortunately that does happen, there are far more trustworthy and legitimate tourism services than the ones that took advantage of out of towers. In fact, many more tourists are satisfied with the friendliness and hospitality of locals. And even when visitors find themselves in a confusing scenario most of the time such traps can be avoided altogether by communicating prices beforehand asking questions are reading reviews before choosing a service. 2) INDONESIAN ARE VERY CONSERVATIVE Some foreigners may have a mental image of Indonesian women wearing headscarves and long dresses. Some tourists may even feel complied to dress as conservative as possible to respect the local culture. And while a modest attire is considered more polite as with anywhere in the world, no one is judging anyone for wearing anything. In the big cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bali and more visitors will see the majority of locals often walking around in jeans and a shirt with many even wearing imported brands. Tourists can also enjoy a vibrant nightlife in certain parts of the city and have a good time with some local friends. 3) INDONESIANS PRACTICE RADICAL ISLAM First of all, it should be noted that HYPERLINK https//theculturetrip.com/asia/indonesia/articles/10-misconceptions-about-indonesia-you-should-know/ Indonesiais a secular state by law it is not a Muslim country, even though it hosts the biggest Muslim population in the world. Religion may have its influences on the countrys philosophy and regulations, but with the exception of the Special Region of Aceh, the nation is governed by principles of democracy and humanity. Its also important to remember that the state officially acknowledges other religions, including Christianity, Catholicism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. 4) INDONESIANS LIVE IN TREES WITH NO ELECTRICITY While there are still many ethnic group who live traditionally with little to no modern technology many parts of the country are now well developed. Indonesians has several big cities dense with shopping malls, hotels and other modern facilities. And even smaller towns have electricity and internet connection. 5) INDONESIANS ARE UNEDUCATED The image of Indonesians being uneducated is consistent with the general stereotype that the nation is widely traditional, remote, and uninformed. In reality, Indonesian kids are required by regulations to attend at least nine years of school. Furthermore, thats just the bare minimum the number of youngsters who enter college is rising with every generation. More also, both state and private institutions are adding new programs and facilities every year. In addition to that, many wealthy Indonesians go as far as Europe or the United States to acquire higher-quality education. 6) INDONESIANS ARE POOR Sadly, the poverty is, indeed, a present social issue in Indonesia. But the generalization that Indonesians are poor is not true. Moreover, the country has a growing consumer class and professionals working in big international industries. Indonesia also has a strong economic growth and one of the highest GDPs in Asia as a country. REACTION TOWARDS STEREOTYPE OF JAPANESE 1) COMMUNICATION BETWEEN NATIONALITIES Japanese people are so nice and is a sentence that will read or hear from travelers, no matter where theyre from. Of course, meeting people with kind and gentle personalities plays a big role in this perception of Japan, but nice folk like that can be found all over the world. Another factor is that no matter how crowded it gets, in a train, for example, Japanese people always strive to abide by the rules, which essentially means paying attention to social codes, etiquette, and manners even if it is bothersome. Moreover, this mindset has very real effects. If you lose your wallet in Japan, the likelihood of it not being stolen but instead returned to the nearest police box is almost ridiculously high. Furthermore, these situations are often anecdotally told as a positive stereotype about Japan, but also are a prominent part of travel stories. This is the kindness that Japan is famous among public. However, this kindness is not tied to specific situations or people. Rather, it is an integral part of what being Japanese means. It is especially visible when someone from Japan interacts with someone from a different country, but looks entirely different between two Japanese people. 2.COMMUNICATION BETWEEN JAPANESE PEOPLE Imagine that you are an international tourist in Japan and say, youve lost your way. If you decide to ask a Japanese passerby for help, youll likely encounter a friendly, kind of person thatll try to help you as best as they can, disregarding language barriers. A positive experience like that surely is not unique to Japan. 3. A JAPANESE COMMUNICATION TOOL FOR KINDNESS AND RESPECT In most parts of the world, it would be perfectly normal to go up to the person, talk to them and maybe even pet the dog, especially if youre encountering the two of them regularly. Friendship are often born out of such small and friendly interactions. However, the same scene wouldnt happen like this in Japan. Speaking to someone who is a stranger, even if you encounter them daily on their walk, is a big no-go. If youd still approach the owner for a friendly remark or casual chat, theyd likely walk away in mild shock. 4) USING KINDNESS AS A SHIELD If you work in a Japanese company, youll participate in nomikai big drinking parties that usually involve entire departments. In other countries, forming friendships with your colleagues over a shared lunch or beer after work is fairly common and Japan is a different matter. Because of the constant awareness of not involving and troubling others as well as worrying about how others see you, forming honest and open friendships can be hard. CULTURAL CONTEXT OF INDONESIAN The official language of Indonesia is known as Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesian. Indonesian is a standardized dialect of the Malay language and was formulated at the time of the declaration of Indonesian independence in 1945 Malay and Indonesian remain very similar. Although the official language, in reality it is most of the populations second language. Due to the sheer size and fractured, Islam make up of the country most people speak regional dialects such as Minangkabau or Javanese. These will usually be spoken at home and in the local community but at work or at school Indonesian is used. DIVERSITY Indonesia is a hugely diverse nation It is made up of over 17,500 islands 6000 of which are inhabited which are home to 300 ethnic group Most people will define themselves locally before nationally In addition there are many cultural influences stemming back from difference in heritage. Indonesian are a mix of Chinese, European, Indian and Malay. HIERARCHY As the most group orientated cultures, hierarchy plays a great role in Indonesian culture Hierarchical relationships are respected, emphaised and maintained. Respect is usually shown to those with status, power, position and age BUSINESS ETIQUETTE PROTOCOL Business cards are normally exchanged after the initial handshake and greeting Business cards should display your title. This steps enhance your image and credibility Although not required, having one side of your card printed in Bahasa shows respect Give and accept cards using two hands or the right hand Examine a business card you receive before putting it on the table next to you or in a business card case It is important to treat business cards with respect WHAT TO WEAR Business attire is generally conservative. Women should dress conservatively ensuring that they are well covered from ankle to neck. Tight fitting clothes are best avoided. Remember it is hot, so cotton or at least light clothing is best. COMMUNICATION STYLES Indonesians are indirect communicators. This means they do not always say what they mean. It is up to the listener to read between the lines or pay attention to gestures and body language to get the real message. Generally speaking Indonesians speak quietly and with a subdued tone. Loud people would come across as slightly aggressive. Business is personal in Indonesia so spend time through communication to build a strong relationship. Dealing with someone face to face is the only effective way of doing business. CULTURAL CONTEXT OF JAPANESE RELIGION BELIEFS Shinto and Buddhism 84 and other 16 including Christian 07 Shinto dates back to ancient times when people believed that the natural world possessed Kami, a Shinto deity or divine spint Buddhism came from China in the 6th century and two religions have co-existed in Japan from that time. GENDER ROLES Historically, women in Japan were expected to be subordinate to men and were confined to domestic matters only. They were excluded from certain sacred areas and were expected to show deference to hierarchical authority in both speech and behavior. In 1947, a new legal framework was established affording equality to both sexes thus giving women more access to education, job opportunities and career advancement. However, the changes in the gender gap, equal pay and educational attainment are slow moving and the concept of total equality remains an ideal rather than the norm at present. ECONOMY Japan is a leading player in the global financial market and is a member of G7. Prior to the middle of the 20th century, Japans economy centred around agriculture, fisheries and forestry but the decline in this sector saw a move towards manufacturing, wholesale retailing and the service industry. It is one of the worlds largest car manufacturers and electronic goods and exporting globally. Japan suffered considerable economic decline in the 1990s although they were able to maintain their economic power internationally. COMMUNICATION STYLE The Japanese rely on facial expression, tone of voice and posture to tell them what someone feels They often trust non-verbal messages more than spoken word as words can have several meanings The context in which something is said affects the maning of the words. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the situation to fully appreciate the response Frowning while someone is speaking is interpreted as a sign of disagreement Most Japanese maintain an impassive expression when speaking Non-verbal communication is vital that there is a book for foreigners on how to interpret the signs BUSINESS CULTURE ETIQUETTE WHAT TO WEAR It is important to dress smartly and conservatively Men should wear a dark suit in the winter months with white shirt and tie that is not brightly colored As the summer months can be very hot it is acceptable to wear half sleeve shirts and light grey suits Women should also dress conservatively, wear hair either short or tied back conspicuous jewellery or short skirt are not considered appropriate MANAGEMENT The hierarchical structure in business management is the essence of corporate culture in Japan. 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