Name: Kareem Tinto
Student I.D.: 816005892
Name of tutor &
Tutorial Class: Dr. Patrick Campbell: Fridays 2-3pm
Session number: No.3

Session date: September 19 th
, 2018
Session topic: Scientific Methods Continued

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In the third lecture, I was again very open minded to the learning process. I was
introduced to the methodology of science through the power of observations,
experimentations, theories and models. At the beginning of session three, a very
simple statement was imprinted into my mind. In short, it stated that, ¨the scientific
method is empirical.¨ (Dr. Omah-Maharaj, 2018). Now this word empirical sounded
like royalty to me. I immediately wondered, what does this mean in the context of
science? Basically, what I gathered from the term, was that empirical, in science,
speaks to knowledge that has been attained from investigation, observation and
experimentation. It is then compared to methods that rely solely on pure reason and
other methods that are based on emotional and subjective factors and which are
ultimately subjected to testing. (Dr. Omah-Maharaj). So again, I had a misconceived
notion of the word empirical. In the context of science, it had nothing to do with
royalty. Moving forward in the lecture the other components of the scientific method
continued, gave me a clearer appreciation of observations, experimentations, theories
and models as it would relate to the scientific process.
Firstly, observations in my understanding of the term refer to the fundamental
elements that are separate and apart from natural senses but also includes scientific

instruments. The observations made can either be qualitative which are used by the
natural senses or quantitative which incorporates the use of scientific instruments. If I
were to draw and analogy of the two, I would say that the science of humans which
amounts to qualitative observations is used to become informed about the business of
others known as ¨maco-ing ¨, where the use of the senses attributed to man-kind such
as eyes, ears and mouth are used to observe events of a personal and none-personal
nature for both the wrong reason (gossiping) or the right reason (reporting of a crime).
In the case of quantitative observations, the case of governmental spies in first world
countries can be taken into account as they use highly advanced technologies birthed
through advancement in science to be able to capture and unmasks droves of
information through the use of scientific equipment. Some examples of such
occurrences are binoculars, concealed cameras or those that are disguised in objects
that are not easily anticipated and many others. In both cases, my reflections of this
portion of the method indicate that the purpose of observations in the two instances
show differences which are further broken down to quality and quantity. What stood
out for me in a very simple way, were the defining of the two terms quantitative and
qualitative observations. The difference between the two is: that qualitative
observation is descriptive, whilst quantitative observations are measurable. (Dr.
Omah-Maharaj, 2018).
Experimentation, being the other term, always conjures the imagery of experiments
being conducted on animals like monkeys and rats in some sort of laboratory. I was
able to appreciate that an experiment is a test that produces evidence that can answer a
hypothesis. (Dr. Omah-Maharaj, 2018). I really agree with this definition of the term
experiment because in my childhood, I would have always thought that when I grew
older, I would have Japanese shaped eyes. I once saw a Japanese national in a concert

I attended as a child and from there, I came to the conclusion that because I liked the
shape of the Japanese national eye, that some good day, if I experimented with my
eyes by pulling the side of my eyes constantly, eventually my eyes would also attain
that shape. Well, suffice it to say that to date, my eyes are nothing close to that of a
Japanese national. The hypothesis that I came up with became answerable along the
course of time, and I was made to realise that the experiment that I embarked on
through the pulling of my eyes and the mental belief system to believe that it would
become like a Japanese eye was wrong. Though this is a very exaggerated reference
to experimentation, I am able to link the ideology to that of science. Well later on in
the lecture, I was surprised to learn that my initial thought on experimentation was not
all that bad as the William Harvey’s investigation and work was enshrined on the
experimentation of live animals with slow heart rates to be able to see how the muscle
of the heart moves in an attempt to understand the movement and flow of blood in the
circulatory system. (Dr. Omah-Maharaj, 2018).
Another interesting thing that I learnt was the difference between a theory and a law.
Theory, for me, refers to something that may be written, or that is merely hypothetical
in nature and that has not yet been proven. When I think of the word law, I think of
governments, law enforcement, and attorneys. Relating that conception to science was
a bit challenging. Before attending this lecture, briefly watching the various headings,
I found it kind of difficult to associate what my perceptions of certain terms meant
and how I can relate them to science. Very simply, I understood in the lecture that in
science, the difference between law and theory was that, a law predicts what happens
whilst a theory proposes why. (Anticole, 2015, 1:07). I really like to get examples to
corroborate information that I am exposed to and in the 2013 movie HER, plausible
theories were raised that predicted how life would be in the not so distant future. A

life where humans can become emotionally attached to artificial intelligence and other
modes of communication.A renowned computer scientist Ray Kurzweil, having
reviewed the movie stated that the film did a great job of showing what can be a
reality for humans by the year 2029. (ScreenRant, 2016, 1:26). Further, according to
Patrick Caughill, in a Futurist post, he accounted that 86% of Ray Kurzweil´s past
predictions were accurate (Caughill, 2017).In my most humble understanding of the
term theory in science, these are all predictions that will seek to prove why a thing
would occur.
The last component of the lecture that stood out to me was models.I distinctively
remember the question being asked, Who can tell me what is a model. There was for a
few moments, like in most class lecture sessions, silence. However, someone broke
the ice and gave their interpretation of what a model was.For me, the simplest word
that truly drove home the point was, a model is a representation of a system or object.¨
(Dr. Omah-Maharaj, 2018). For me, I understood that and whilst reflecting on it, I
thought of mini cars that car companies make when the are designing new cars, they
have these small representations of the said car in a minute version that shows what
the original thing would be like.I also remembered the 3D representation of buildings
or houses like in the game SIMS. It is so impressive to know that in its entirety, a
model is the combination of scientific data combine with that of human activity. It
also helps to define ideas; concepts simulate and quantify systems and solutions.
(Samuels, 2014, 0:15).
Again, I was pleased to learn that within the scientific process, each of the prevailing
methods that are involved, are so integral in the obtaining of information as well as
delivery of a better way of life to us human beings that live in this natural world. I am
really grateful to connect the dots of science as I identify and interact with all of the

fruits and labours of scientists that have gone before my time to ensure that the world
and the understanding of it and those that live in it can be appreciated today.
Reference list
Anticole, Matt. (2015, November 19). What´s the difference between a scientific law
theory?-Matt Anticole Video file . Retrieved from

Caughill, Patrick. (2017, October 11). Ray Kurzeil´s Most Exciting Predictions About
the Future of Humanity Retrieved from
Dr.Omah-Maharaj, Indira. (2018, September, 19). The Scientific Methods Continued
Retrieved from

ScreenRant. (2016, November 12). 10 Popular MovieThat Actually Got the Science
Right Video file . Retrieved from

Worcesterjonny. (2008, April 29). William Harvey and the circulation of blood
Video file . Retrieved from