Analysis of Variance
The analysis of variance is a mathematical tool used by researchers to find the extent to which two or more data sets differ CITATION Sul l 1033 (Sulliva). A few examples of these data sets may include IQ level of subjects from different countries and price of commodities in a vast geographical area. This analysis may be conducted in two ways: one where there is only one independent variable and another case where there are two or more independent variables. The deviation from the mean of the respective data sets is calculated by finding the sum of the squares of the differences between the mean and the set of numbers. This deviation is essential since it should be compared with the deviation from the other data sets CITATION Tur01 l 1033 (Turner & Thayer, 2001).
When considering two sets of data, analysis of variance may be defined as a method of calculating the difference between the means of the two data sets. It may involve multiple data sets. Analysis of variance is used to do complex analyses of data and is by far the most widely used technique CITATION Tur01 l 1033 (Turner & Thayer, 2001). Here, a non-specific null hypothesis is formulated and the analysis is based on the available statistical data. If the hypothesis is rejected, this means that there is difference between at least two data sets if not more. This method shows how spread the data is from the mean CITATION Sul l 1033 (Sulliva).
With respect to accounting, analysis of variance is a general method of determine the differences between actual prices of commodities and the standard price. This statistical tool assumes potential difference between the prices of commodities in different cities or countries. The aggregate price in the respective locations is calculated from which the deviation from the mean of all the prices is calculated. These are the differences that are squared then summed up to form the variance. It is often difficult to relate variance back to the actual data as we use the deviations to get it CITATION Sul l 1033 (Sulliva). Finally, the differences in the mean of these diverse data sets is calculated.
Interaction is the process by which two or more entities interrelate with and influence each other’s’ behavior. Human beings relate with each other in various aspects of life from work, learning institutions and in homes. People send and receive information from colleagues. The recipient of the message will react with accordance to the information received CITATION Dev06 l 1033 (Devlin & Rosenberg, 2006). According to Hornbaek, interaction involves different parties where their behavior is exposed with time. There are different kinds of interaction which include human interaction with their colleagues, human interaction with the technology, human interaction with the environment among others CITATION Hor l 1033 (Hornbaek & Oulasvirta).
Human-environment interactions are a typical example of interaction. Human beings interact with the natural environment where they practice deforestation, burning bushes, and end up interfering with the ecosystem. This causes insufficient rainfall which leads to famine and drying up of rivers. Humans end up suffering due to lack of sufficient food and water (“geographic perspectives”). They are the greatest cause of environmental change due to the release of greenhouse gases from industries and gasoline powered vehicles which has led to global warming CITATION Jia l 1033 (Jianguo & et al). From another perspective, human being may have a positive impact on the environment. This may be done through conservation of wildlife and regulating the disposal of wastes by recycling.
Interaction exists in all walks of life. From work environment, learning institutions and in the social environment. Some of the variables in work places is include work pressure, supervisor assistance and peer cohesion CITATION Tur94 l 1033 (Turnipsed, 1994). Peer cohesion creates a bond between the employees. Supervisor assistance aids in lightening the work pressure CITATION Wor l 1033 (Work Place Interaction). In learning environments, it is essential that teachers and students create a healthy relationship to allow proper learning to take place. Failure to this will lead to poor performance of the students and degrading the value of the school. In the absence of teachers, students may assist each other in the topics they did not grasp leading to a good relationship between the students and great performance CITATION Moo89 l 1033 (Moore, 1989). Finally, in the social environment, a number of variables including family support, number of social friends may have a great impact on ones’ physical and mental health.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Devlin, K., ; Rosenberg, D. (2006). Information in the Study of Human Interaction.
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Hornbaek, K., ; Oulasvirta, A. (n.d.). What is Interaction.
Jianguo, Z., ; et al. (n.d.). Prediction of CO2 Emissions Based on the Analyses and Classification Decoupling.
Moore, M. G. (1989). Three Types of Interaction. Article in American Journal of Distance Education.
Sulliva, L. (n.d.). Hypothesis Testing – Analysis of Variance. Boston: Boston University School of Public Health.
Turner, J. R., ; Thayer, J. F. (2001). Introduction to Analysis of Variance: Design, analysis ; interpretation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Turnipsed, l. D. (1994, May). An Analysis on the Influence of Work Environment Variables and Moderators on the Burnout Syndrome. Journal of Applied Social Psycology, 24(9).
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Wright, D. B. (2006). Comparing groups in a before-after design: When t testand ANCOVA produce different results. British Journal of Educational Psycology, 76, 663-675.