Name

Name: Julia Phillips

Citation in APA Style
Eisenberg, Y., Rimmer, J. H., Mehta, T., & Fox, M. H. (2015). Development of a community health inclusion index: An evaluation tool for improving inclusion of people with disabilities in community health initiatives. BMC Public Health,15(1051), 1-7. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
Purpose
The objective of this study is to assess health active living initiatives and design an instrument that provides support for those with disability to fully participate and have opportunity to live healthy and active.
Significance
People in the US with disability are limited in mobility, cognition, or sensory function and are most likely to be sedentary and have health problems with greater barriers. The current instrument to measure physical activity is not designed to measure those with disability. Therefore, the researchers are finding a new instrument to develop and testing it through literature review, focus groups and expert panel review.
Findings
The Community Health Inclusion Index found that people with disability have the greatest barriers and can have restrictions when using a community facility or programs. Current instruments cannot measure those with disability and a new instrument needs to be developed in order to better design a healthy, active living initiative. The study was split into three parts. The first was the literature review which looked at existing instruments for important items and manuscripts discussing barriers or health promotion with disability. The next part was focus groups. This analyzed people with diverse range of disability and discussed barriers and promoters to health inclusion structures. The third part was an expert panel reviewed using electronic survey and reviewed material in their field of expertise. From all three parts instruments were designed and tested in different locations. The results of the study found that those with disability encounter greater barriers but the CHII has a better understanding of healthy inclusion with the new instrument to assess those with disability.
Conclusion
The authors concluded that the CHII new instrument for those with disability focuses on healthy eating and physical activity and increase awareness and promote community health inclusion. However there was low sample size due to some limitation but the current data was beneficial and increased their knowledge in areas. Future research should continue sampling individuals with disability and seeking more beneficial ways of promoting community inclusion for people with disability.
Word Court: 389

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Name: Julia Phillips

Citation in APA Style
Watanabe, S. (2013). Vocational rehabilitation for clients with cognitive and behavioral disorders associated with traumatic brain injury. IOS Press,45, 273-277. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
Purpose
The objective of this study is to see the outcomes of 300 patients with traumatic brain injuries who were in-patients at Kanagawa Rehabilitation in Japan and examine the use of interdisciplinary teamwork model.
Significance
People with traumatic brain injuries tend to have cognitive and behavioral problems after their injury and need help and support to return to work. In Japan the government provides health services but it is not satisfactory for those with TBI. Therefore, Vocation rehabilitation of individuals with TBI have been shown to help with cognitive and behavioral problems and help more patients be able to return to work and be able to do daily activities.
Findings
This study included 300 patients, majority with severe TBI, most of whom have physical, cognitive or psychosocial issues. The patients participated in a holistic rehabilitation program and the patents were placed in 3 groups based on the severity on the Barthel Index and all three groups showed significant improvement. The research showed there was significant gains in activities of daily living during inpatient programs. Patients made significant gains in psychosocial problems and were also able to return to work. 82.3% of participants had severe injuries and had showed significant improvements. The research affirmed that physical and functional skills will come back quicker and cognitive and neuropsychological problems are slowly recovered until they can adjust to the real world. Long-term support is also beneficial with clients with TBI for both physical and cognitive gains with vocational and medical rehabilitation.
Conclusion
The authors concluded that the usage of vocational therapy could help patients with TBI make great gain in recovery physically and cognitively and some would be able to return to work or school and most to be able to do to daily life activities. Long term supports of medical and vocational rehabilitation enables the greatest gains in patients improvement. Future research should continue to examine what is the greatest form of recovery for patients with TBI and see if they can improve upon vocational rehabilitation.
Word Court: 365
?
Name: Julia Phillips

Citation in APA Style
Lachapelle, Y., Wehmeyer, M. L., Haelewyck, M. C., Courbois, Y., Keith, K. D., Schalock, R., Walsh, P. N. (2005). The relationship between quality of life and self-determination: An international study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research,49(10), 740-744. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
Purpose
The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between self-determination and quality of life to determine if this is a correlation with people with intellectual disability.
Significance
People with intellectual disability have been found to have a correlation between self-determination and quality of life. In previous studies it has shown that self-determination predicted quality of life for those with intellectual disability. In this study it is examining if same correlation exists between self-determination and quality of life when the sample is international people with intellectual disabilities from Canada, United States, Belgium and France.
Findings
This study was based off previous literature examining quality of life and self determination link in people with intellectual disabilities. The authors used a Quality of Life Questionaire to measure quality of life and The Arc’s Self-Determination Scale to measure self-determination. the groups were assigned based on the scores from quality of life and constructed a correlation analysis using a one-tailed procedure. The analysis found significant positive correlation between overall quality of life and self-determination in all but one score. This international data mirrored previous finding and helps with understanding more about the correlation between those two factors. This data also indicated that self-determination characteristics predicted high quality of life. Overall self-determination contributes to greater quality of life. The sample is too small however to compare each country’s results. This data will hopefully allow for a better understanding of the nature of the relationship between the two factors and allow for effectively doing things to for people with intellectual disability and enhancing their quality of life.
Conclusion
The author concluded there is a correlation between the relationship of self-determination and quality of life with individuals with intellectual disabilities. This study was expanded upon previous studies using international participants and reaffirmed the previous data. Future research should be expanded in developing countries and western countries with greater diversity.
Word Court: 364
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Name: Julia Phillips

Citation in APA Style
Koritsas, S., & Iacono, T. (2011). Secondary Conditions in Poeple With Developmental Disability. American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities,116(1), 36-47. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
Purpose
The objective of this study is to examine secondary conditions in those with developmental disabilities in regards of overall health and independence, the degree and nature of the secondary condition experienced, explore differences among gender.
Significance
It has been well researched and documented that people with developmental disabilities experience health problems and have a lower life expectancy. However little is known and there is a lack of attention about secondary conditions associated with people with developmental disability and this study is to identify these condition and prevent them.
Findings
A questionnaire was used and distributed to caregivers of those with developmental disability. The author reported that the average number of secondary conditions among those with developmental disabilities was 11.3. The most frequent secondary conditions reported were communication and reading difficulties and physical fitness conditioning. Other common secondary conditions were personal hygiene, weight problems, and dental and oral hygiene. The finding in this study were also very similar to the secondary conditions reports in previous studies and the prevalence of the same conditions recurring. There was also not significant difference between genders comparing overall health and independence scores. The most common problem reported by data was reading difficulties for both genders. However the only significant difference found between gender was respiratory problems and fatigue was more common in males than females. There was limitations on the study based on caregivers reporting and the accuracy is unknown. The results do however offer helpful insight into common secondary conditions and the degree of which these conditions affect those with developmental disabilities.
Conclusion
The author concluded that there are five prevalent secondary conditions experienced by those with developmental disabilities and the level of limitation the conditions present. There were limitations regarding validity that is hampered by definition differences in regards to secondary conditions and caregiver responds. Future research should focus on intervention and prevention methods of secondary conditions in people with developmental disabilities.
Word Court: 354
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Name: Julia Phillips

Citation in APA Style
Rimmer, J. H., Rauworth, A., Wang, E., Heckerling, P. S., & Gerber, B. S. (2009). A randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity and reduce obesity in a predominantly African American group of women with mobility disabilities and severe obesity. Preventative Medicine,48, 473-479. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
Purpose
The objective of this study is to promote physical activity through telephone intervention among majority African American women with mobility disabilities or obesity and determine the efficacy of coaching intervention on outcomes.
Significance
There is a lack of participation in beneficial exercise for people with disability and are at risk of more health complication associated with sedentary lifestyles. There are also greater barriers limiting participation in physical activities, most common barrier being obesity. This study is examining the impact of Personalized Exercise Program on increasing physical activity and improving health outcomes using coaching interventions and comparing it to an awareness control group.
Findings
This study is examining the differences among three groups: lower support intervention group, higher support intervention group and awareness control group. All participants had the same tool kits to monitor exercise and healthy food the only difference is the level of support and intervention. Another finding was approximately two-thirds of partipants who were severely obese has completed high school or less. Those who were in the higher support intervention group had significant reduction in body weight and BMI while the other groups did not have significant changes. In both support groups there was increases in physical activity scores while the awareness group showed an increase in mobility limitation. This study also provide these individuals with ways they could be more active based on the barriers they reported and have a personal exercise program. Limitations were the length of the study and those in the study regaining weight and decrease in activity. Participation in physical activity is more successful when it is personal modified to the specific needs of each individual.
Conclusion
Telephone based high support intervention was the most effective method in promoting and increasing physical activity. However, there needs to be a cost-effective health promotion intervention developed. Future research should evaluate long term effectiveness of support systems for those with obesity and mobility limitations.
Word Court: 375