On January 20

On January 20, 2017, Mr. Trump delivered a memorizing inaugural address that would probably enter the history books of the American politician as the most shocking inaugural speech compared to previous presidential speeches, especially the one delivered by John F. Kennedy, in the American history. The researching interest was conceived due to above mentioned impressive speech, and it proved worthwhile to investigate the essential rhetorical devices Mr. Trump employed, and the modes of persuasion he manipulated in his inaugural speech, for furtherly understanding the successful ways of Mr. Trumps persuasion and to observing the differences in the ways of his speaking than the previous president John F. Kennedy. This study took an aim at revealing the ways Mr. Trump employed the rhetorical devices in the 2017 presidential inaugural address basing on Aristotles three modes of persuasion and other rhetorical devices listed in the definition of terms section compared to John F. Kennedys inaugural delivery in 1961 to perceive the difference between Mr. Trumps and John F. Kennedys ways of manipulating rhetorical devices in persuading the public to concur and believe in their assertion of their power. The research findings indicated that unlike the ways of John F. Kennedys speech with the most frequently applied of ethos in modes of persuasion, Mr. Donald Trump almost relied entirely on pathos revealing he was seasoned at arousing the emotional influence upon his audience. A suggestion of Mr. Trump as a politician having no advantage in every respect, to become an outstanding icon in politics and in public after the winning of the presidential campaign was proposed, and the ideas of the oddly adolescent language and rhetoric skills he employed were construed as the cornerstones of his success in the United States presidential election. Keywords logos, ethos, pathos, rhetorical devicesIntroduction After the 2016 presidential election, a question many media frequently asked of was that how the phenomenon of a self-boasted and non-politician background businessman won the presidential campaign could happen, as almost all of the polls conducted during the election indicated that Hilary was far ahead of Mr. Trump. There were some cried out that the media such as CNN, MSNBC, and Fox News did not take the rural population, and the workers votes, so to speak, into the polls, while others voiced that the Hillary Clintons email event was a hit and she was under investigation of the FBI. Take all these factors into consideration, what I could put was the unexpected winning of Mr. Trumps was really a phenomenon considered that numerous news releases, articles, and researches have already done to investigate Mr. Trumps success in the presidential campaign. Chris Matthews, a host on MSNBC, for instance, argued that, a lot of this support for Trump, with all his flaws which he displays regularly, is about the country patriotic feelings people have, they feel like the country has been let down. Our elite leaders on issues like immigration, they dont regulate any immigration it seems. They dont regulate trade to our advantage, to the working man or working womans advantage. They take us into stupid wars. Their kids dont fight but our kids do. Others even suggested that it was the effect of celebrity as Mr. Trump was known for his 2003 reality TV show, The Apprentice, which brought him a hug tide of fame, and there were researchers probing into the linguistic features of his presidential announcement speech, nomination speech, and the other speeches he made during the presidential campaign came up with the conclusion as his discourse was provoking, and yet simple and repetitive at the same time. There also have few articles and researches briefly discussed about Mr. Trumps inaugural address, but none of them have taken the stance of making a comparison of his inaugural address with previous presidents to observe the difference in the usage of rhetorical devices, and the rhetorical devices basing on the modes of persuasion proposed by Aristotle he and previous president applied in persuading the public, except in a few mass media articles which made brief comparisons with Barack Obamas 2008 inaugural address without detailed analysis of rhetorical devices (reference for these articles are provided at the end of this study). It is obvious that the main focus of this study would take the rhetorical devices both Trump and JFK applied in their delivery of inaugural address into examination to observe why these two such contrast speeches could both inspire the public, and comes up with the differences, explanation, and further implication for both inaugural speech, and the researchers opinions would also be covered in this study. Background A brief introduction of the biography of Mr. Donald J. Trump (henceforward abbreviated as Trump) and John F. Kennedy (henceforward abbreviated as JFK) would be presented and their early interest in politics would also be mentioned in the following passage. Mr. Trump was the heir of Fred Trump, a real estate developer in USA, who made Trump inherited a good deal of fortune in real estate and he gradually build up his own business kingdom, and furtherly even made his name into brands such as Trump Tower, Trump university, and Trump steaks. Before announcing running for presidency, Trump was already a well-known celebrity in America owing to his showmanship that made him a sophisticated debater, as he used to host the TV show The Apprentice back in the early 2000s and being the host of this reality show did a boost to his showmanship. In the 2000s, he once took running for president into consideration as the candidate of the Reform Party, although he never did really go for it at the end, the good thing was that it brought him much more fame than he thought. Not till June 16th 2015 did Trump announce his inclination for running the presidency. Trump gained media attention and won the covers for numerous time for his straightforward statements and hatefulness of political correction, and among these events, the building a wall around the USA and Mexico border for keeping off illegal immigrants was the most well-known one. It was in these events that Trumps rhetoric was incarnated as fierce and full of hatred toward his enemies of presidential campaign, enemies against America, and media that criticized him. Despite the difficulties, Trump was elected as the 45th president of United States, he who at the inauguration ceremony delivered a speech with his usual fiery tone of a sophisticated businessman addressing the audience, and undoubtedly echoed with the rhetoric and tenor of the presidential campaigns that swept him into Whitehouse with relentlessly inward-looking for a nation that was long-defined itself as a powerful democracy. John F. Kennedy was the second child of Joseph P, who was known as a businessman, investor and politician in America. It was quite an astonishing fact if we took JFKs poor performance, which due to his preference of socializing and sporting, in his early school life into consideration that this was the man who would later be one of the most influential presidents in history of the United States, and not till at the end of his college did he really take an interest in politics as before graduating, he got the chance of being an intern in the London embassy, which was an initial keystone that awakened his interest in politics in the upcoming day. After graduating from Harvard, he went for the military to fight in the World War II, in which he earned the name as a war hero for saving his injured comrades, and after that, he began his life in politics. Serving from one of the members in the House of Representatives, to junior United States Senator, and then to the president of the United States, JFK was not only regarded as a charismatic person with the power of articulating his vision for the change that stirred up the emotion of the public, but also considered as a president that inspired his fellow Americans to dream big and serve the nation with their best. The researcher took Trump and JFK into consideration and proposed that though both won the presidential campaign, the ways of their utterances, the background of their lives, their experience in politics, their difference of temperament, and the most crucial of all was that both were different in rhetoric and the application of rhetorical devices. In the next chapter, some previous articles about Trumps and JFKs inaugural address would be reviewed and opinions of the researcher would be presented before stepping into analyzing of their inaugural addresses. Previous studies Articles about Trumps inaugural address Numerous predictions done by researchers had already shown up even before Trump won the presidency, and many or even more studies about his personal traits, the ways he spoke, and even the ways he tweeted were conducted by researchers after he arrived in the White House. Among these studies, ADDIN EN.CITE EndNoteCite AuthorYear1AuthorGreen/AuthorYear2017, January 23/YearRecNum270/RecNumDisplayTextGreen (2017)/DisplayTextrecordrec-number270/rec-numberforeign-keyskey appEN db-idf0exv05x5ewaxbeaafvppzpj92s92fdv9fx5 timestamp1519128668270/key/foreign-keysref-type nameJournal Article17/ref-typecontributorsauthorsauthorstyle facenormal fontdefault size100Green/stylestyle facenormal fontdefault charset136 size100, /stylestyle facenormal fontdefault size100Matthew/style/author/authors/contributorstitlestitlestyle facenormal fontTimes New Roman size100Opposing Visions Comparing Trump and Obamaapos s Inauguration Addresses/style/title/titlespagesstyle facenormal fontTimes New Roman size100January 23/stylestyle facesuperscript fontTimes New Roman size100rd/style/pagesdatesyearstyle facenormal fontdefault charset136 size1002017/style/year/datesurls/urls/record/Cite/EndNoteGreen (2017), was the first one who made us glimpse into the difference of Trumps inaugural speech with one of the previous presidents Barack Obama. Green pointed out that the their rhetorical style and general demeanor contrast were dramatically, and also, it was blatantly obvious that the crowd gathering on the National Mall to see Trump on 20 Jan. 2017 was significantly slimmer than those who gathered in 2009 to see Obama. The worth noted point regarding Trumps rhetoric can be referred to his rather concise and simple speech compared to the precedent one delivered by Obama. Journalist of Washington Post, ADDIN EN.CITE EndNoteCite AuthorYear1AuthorBump/AuthorYear2017/YearRecNum272/RecNumDisplayTextBump (2017)/DisplayTextrecordrec-number272/rec-numberforeign-keyskey appEN db-idf0exv05x5ewaxbeaafvppzpj92s92fdv9fx5 timestamp1519130315272/key/foreign-keysref-type nameJournal Article17/ref-typecontributorsauthorsauthorBump, Philip/author/authors/contributorstitlestitlestyle facenormal fontTimes New Roman size100Trump/stylestyle facenormal fontdefault charset136 size100apos/stylestyle facenormal fontTimes New Roman size100s inaugural address was demonstrably bleak/style/titlesecondary-titleWashington Post/secondary-title/titlesperiodicalfull-titleWashington Post/full-title/periodicalpagesstyle facenormal fontdefault size100 January 20/stylestyle facesuperscript fontdefault size100th/style/pagesdatesyear2017/year/datesurls/urls/record/Cite/EndNoteBump (2017) wrote Trumps inaugural address was demonstrably bleak, in which Trumps spoken words were reported as never had been uttered in any previous inaugural address such as ravages, tombstones, robbed, and carnage. While Obama at the other hand, applied words such as hope, strength, protection, and move forward. The following was one of the most notable comparison instances in Greens article when both speaking about Islamic relations, Trump put it in this way, unite the civilized world against Radical Islamic Terrorism, which we will eradicate completely from the face of the Earth while Obama said, to those leaders around the globe who seek to sow conflict, or blame their societys ills on the West, know that your people will judge you on what you can build, not what you destroy. It was worth noticed that Trump tended to apply us-versus-them rhetoric and combined that with crushing the fear of terrorists like a superhero showing of his power while Obama voiced his opinion to the leaders who seek to sow conflict as if a teacher lecturing students on not to be mischievous. The last article about Trumps inaugural address was the one done by Expert System ADDIN EN.CITE EndNoteCite ExcludeAuth1AuthorSystem/AuthorYear2017/YearRecNum278/RecNumDisplayText(2017)/DisplayTextrecordrec-number278/rec-numberforeign-keyskey appEN db-idf0exv05x5ewaxbeaafvppzpj92s92fdv9fx5 timestamp1519133800278/key/foreign-keysref-type nameJournal Article17/ref-typecontributorsauthorsauthorSystem Expert/author/authors/contributorstitlestitlestyle facenormal fontTimes New Roman size100Donald Trumpapos s inauguration speech Expert System analyzed the new American president/stylestyle facenormal fontdefault charset136 size100/stylestyle facenormal fontTimes New Roman size100s speech to highlight the similarities and differences between President Bush in 2001 and President Obama in 2009/style/title/titlespagesstyle facenormal fontdefault size100January 20/stylestyle facesuperscript fontdefault size100th/style/pagesdatesyear2017/year/datesurls/urls/record/Cite/EndNote(2017), which is an Cogito cognitive software that automatically understands the input words, phrases and sentences, as the analysis system highlights ones distinguishing linguistic features, in analyzing the new American presidents speech to highlight the similarities and differences between President Bush in 2001 and President Obama in 2009, in which three presidents word counts in the their addresses were indicated and the linguistic style was mentioned, too. There were less than 1430 words in Trumps inaugural speech, which was shorter than Bushs inaugural address in 2001 (1592 words counted) and of Obamas in 2009 (2395 words counted). The expert system indicated that Trumps address was easy to read as the type of vocabulary used could be estimated at the level of high school graduates as Bushs, while Obamas was fit for college graduates due to the higher lexical richness. Articles about JFKs inaugural Address In an article titled JFKs inaugural speech Six secrets of his success ADDIN EN.CITE EndNoteCiteAuthorAtkinson/AuthorYear2011/YearRecNum271/RecNumDisplayText(Atkinson, 2011)/DisplayTextrecordrec-number271/rec-numberforeign-keyskey appEN db-idf0exv05x5ewaxbeaafvppzpj92s92fdv9fx5 timestamp1519129920271/key/foreign-keysref-type nameNewspaper Article23/ref-typecontributorsauthorsauthorAtkinson, Max/author/authors/contributorstitlestitleJFKaposs inaugural speech Six secrets of his success/titlesecondary-titleBBC News/secondary-title/titlespagesstyle facenormal fontdefault size100January 19/stylestyle facesuperscript fontdefault size100th/style/pagesdatesyear2011/year/datesurls/urls/record/Cite/EndNote(Atkinson, 2011), he argued that JFK was someone who took word-craft very seriously indeed, as he applied the most essential rhetorical devices that made an inaugural speech a hit such as the contrast (ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country), three-part lists (where the strong are just, and the weak secure and the peace preserved), and combinations of contrasts and lists (Not because the communists are doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right). Besides, Atkinson also noticed that poetic rhetorical devices such as alliteration (let us go forth to lead the land we love), and imagery (the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans). It was worth noticing as Atkinson pointed out the more use of these a speaker makes, the more applause they will get and the more likely it is that they will be recognized as a brilliant orator. It was with these rhetorical devices that JFK won the heart of American people and became one of the most influential presidents of United States who was capable of persuading the citizens of USA to unite together in establishing the great nation to its glory. In an analysis named JOHN F. KENNEDY, INAUGURAL ADDRESS (20 JANUARY 1961) by ADDIN EN.CITE EndNoteCite AuthorYear1AuthorMehltretter/AuthorYear2009/YearRecNum274/RecNumDisplayTextMehltretter (2009)/DisplayTextrecordrec-number274/rec-numberforeign-keyskey appEN db-idf0exv05x5ewaxbeaafvppzpj92s92fdv9fx5 timestamp1519131324274/key/foreign-keysref-type nameJournal Article17/ref-typecontributorsauthorsauthorMehltretter, Sara Ann/author/authors/contributorstitlestitleJohn F. Kennedy,quotInaugural Addressquot(20 January 1961)/titlesecondary-titleVoices of Democracy/secondary-title/titlesperiodicalfull-titleVoices of Democracy/full-title/periodicalpages41-59/pagesvolume4/volumedatesyear2009/year/datesurls/urls/record/Cite/EndNoteMehltretter (2009), she suggested that Kennedys inaugural address was not merely an example of the inaugural genre, but also a forceful, persuasive response to a particular situation, the Cold War that, in Kennedys view, would demand commitment and sacrifice from all Americans. Sara also argued that JFKs address was a strong one with eloquent words spoke out slowly and deliberately, which suggested his trying of deemphasize his pronounced Boston accent, and the language he used was artistic and formal that could be observed as appropriate for the presidential inaugural. She noted that JFK rested on repetition to enforce emphasis to important section, as when he reminded Americans that man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life, the rhetorical device of repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of a sentence was applied to create a rhythmic flow in his speech. Sara commented that the most memorable rhetorical device in Kennedys speech was his use of antithesis or inversion in the following line, let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate. Research questions According to previous explanation and necessary information, there were two questions that the researcher would like to answer in the research. 1. What were the differences between Mr. Trumps and JFKs usage of modes of persuasion 2. What were the most frequently applied rhetorical devices in each of the inaugural address, and what could we learn from the usage of these rhetorical devices Focus and Theory Through analyzing the full text of Mr. Trumps and JFKs inaugural address transcripts, the researcher would focus on specifying the rhetorical devices they applied basing on Aristotles theory of modes of persuasion, and other rhetorical devices hinging on A Handbook of Rhetorical Devices ADDIN EN.CITE EndNoteCiteAuthorHarris/AuthorYear2013/YearRecNum273/RecNumDisplayText(Harris, 2013)/DisplayTextrecordrec-number273/rec-numberforeign-keyskey appEN db-idf0exv05x5ewaxbeaafvppzpj92s92fdv9fx5 timestamp1519130790273/key/foreign-keysref-type nameJournal Article17/ref-typecontributorsauthorsauthorHarris, Robert A./author/authors/contributorstitlessecondary-titleA Handbook of Rhetorical Devices/secondary-title/titlesperiodicalfull-titleA Handbook of Rhetorical Devices/full-title/periodicalpagesstyle facenormal fontdefault size100January 19/stylestyle facesuperscript fontdefault size100th/style/pagesdatesyear2013/year/datesurlsrelated-urlsurlhttps//www.virtualsalt.com/rhetoric.htm/url/related-urls/urls/record/Cite/EndNote(Harris, 2013) they applied in their full text transcriptions of the inaugural speeches. Definition of terms 2.1.1 Rhetoric and Rhetorical Devices According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, it defines rhetoric as the art of speaking or writing effectively, including a means of communication or persuasion skill in the effective use of language as well as insincere or grandiloquent language (Merriam Webster 2017). As for the rhetorical device, according to Wikipedia ADDIN EN.CITE EndNoteCite ExcludeAuth1Authordevices/AuthorYear2018/YearRecNum275/RecNumDisplayText(2018)/DisplayTextrecordrec-number275/rec-numberforeign-keyskey appEN db-idf0exv05x5ewaxbeaafvppzpj92s92fdv9fx5 timestamp1519132441275/key/foreign-keysref-type nameEncyclopedia53/ref-typecontributorsauthorsauthorDevices Rhetorical/author/authors/contributorstitlessecondary-titleWikipedia, the free encyclopedia/secondary-title/titlesperiodicalfull-titleWikipedia, the free encyclopedia/full-title/periodicalpagesstyle facenormal fontdefault size100January 6/stylestyle facesuperscript fontdefault size100th/style/pagesdatesyear2018/year/datesurlsrelated-urlsurlhttps//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetorical_device/url/related-urls/urls/record/Cite/EndNote(2018), it is a technique that an author or speaker uses to convey to the listener or reader a meaning with the goal of persuading him or her towards considering a topic from a different perspective, and using sentences designed to encourage or provoke an emotional display of a given perspective or action. The rhetoric covered in this study was categorized to the political rhetoric, which did not differ very much from rhetoric as they were all made to be the tools in persuading the public, as I thought that the political rhetoric was also the techniques that a speaker consistently depended on a score of powerful techniques such as the alliteration, metaphor, and repetition. These rhetorical devices in politics could be perceived in the speeches written for politicians by political speech writers and it is helpful to study these speeches such as the announcement, and the inaugural speech that normally were filled up with political rhetorical devices. In the following were some common rhetorical devices that were applied by politicians from different countries and even eras basing on the source from A Handbook of Rhetorical Devices by Robert A. Harris (2010). 2.1.2 Modes of Persuasion The modes of persuasion are devices in rhetoric that can classify a speakers appeal to the audience. According to Aristotles On Rhetoric, the modes of persuasion was depicted as Persuasion is clearly a sort of demonstration, since we are most fully persuaded when we consider a thing to have been demonstrated ADDIN EN.CITE EndNoteCiteAuthorAristotle/AuthorYear1954/YearRecNum277/RecNumDisplayText(Aristotle, 1954)/DisplayTextrecordrec-number277/rec-numberforeign-keyskey appEN db-idf0exv05x5ewaxbeaafvppzpj92s92fdv9fx5 timestamp1519133248277/key/foreign-keysref-type nameBook6/ref-typecontributorsauthorsauthorAristotle/author/authors/contributorstitlestitleThe rhetoric and the poetics of Aristotle/title/titlesdatesyear1954/year/datespub-locationNew York/pub-locationpublisherThe Modern Library/publisherurls/urls/record/Cite/EndNote(Aristotle, 1954). There are three kinds of modes of persuasion. The first is logos, which is an appeal based on logic or reason and it is normally applied in describing facts and figures that support a speakers topic. It is worth noting that having a logos appeal also enhances a speakers ethos as information makes a speaker look prepared to the audience. The examples of logos are definitions, factual data and statistics, quotations, and citations from experts. The second is ethos, which is an appeal based on the character of the speaker that is to say it is an appeal to the authority or honesty of the speaker, and it is how the speaker convinces the audience that he or she is qualified to speak on a particular subject. To develop ethos, a speaker should apply appropriate level of vocabulary, correct grammar, and language appropriate to audience. The last one is pathos, which is an appeal based on emotion, as it can be in the form of metaphor, a simile, or a simple claim that a matter is unjust. Pathos would be a powerful rhetorical device if the speaker uses it well, but most of the speeches do not solely depend on pathos, for they may use pathos to appeal to fear in order to make the audience be impressed. The instances of appealing to pathos is a speaker should use vivid language, emotionally loaded language, emotional examples, connotative meanings, and it could also be narratives of emotional events. Alliteration It is the recurrence of initial consonant sounds. The repetition can be juxtaposed (and then it is usually limited to two words). Allusion It is a short, indirect, and informal reference to a famous person, place, or event. Anaphora It is the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences Anastrophe It is the change of word order of the subject, the verb, and the object. Antithesis It establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure. Asyndeton It consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. Chiasmus It might be called reverse parallelism, since the second part of a grammatical construction is balanced or paralleled by the first part, only in reverse order. Climax Consists of arranging words, clauses, or sentences in the order of increasing importance, weight, or emphasis. Conduplicatio Resembles anadiplosis in the repetition of a preceding word, but it repeats a key word (not just the last word) from a preceding phrase, clause, or sentence, at the beginning of the next. Imagery Lively descriptions which impress the images of things upon the mind using one or more of the five senses. Metaphor It compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Parallelism The technique of arranging words, phrases, clauses, or larger structures by placing them side by side and making them similar in form. Polysyndeton Insertion of conjunctions before each word in a list. Sententia The punctuation of a point with an aphorism. Tricolon A series of three words, phrases or sentences that are parallel in structure, length and/or rhythm. Research Material In this section, the researcher would first conduct analysis of Trumps 2017 inaugural address and then JFKs 1961 inaugural address basing on Aristotles three modes of persuasion and other above mentioned rhetorical devices. Notable features would be highlighted for analyzing Mr. Trumps and JFKs application of rhetorical devices in the passages, while at the same time the researcher would also paying special attention to notable words presented in Trumps and JFKs inaugural speeches for revealing the meaning of those specific words that made both speeches differed greatly, and then a summary with the researchers perspective would be made basing on the findings in answering of the researcher questions. Data Analysis The bolded words were the rhetorical devices applied in brackets, and the underline words were which the researcher thought were essential in making Trumps and JFKs inaugural address differed, and the researchers thought would be given at the conclusion section. Donald Trump Inaugural Address Chief Justice Roberts, President Carter, President Clinton, President Bush, President Obama, fellow Americans, and people of the world thank you (Ethos). We, the citizens of America, are now joined in a great national effort to rebuild our country and to restore its promise for all of our people (Ethos, Alliteration). Together, we will determine the course of America and the world for years to come. We will face challenges. We will confront hardships. We will get the job done. (Ethos, Pathos, Anaphora, Tricolon) Every four years, we gather on these steps to carry out the orderly and peaceful transfer of power, (Logos) and we are grateful to President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama for their gracious aid throughout this transition (Pathos). They have been magnificent. (Pathos, Metaphor) Todays ceremony, however, has very special meaning. Because today we are not merely transferring power from one Administration to another, or from one party to another but we are transferring power from Washington, D.C. and giving it back to you, the American People. (Ethos, Pathos) For too long, a small group in our nations Capital has reaped the rewards (Alliteration) of government while the people have borne the cost. Washington flourished but the people did not share in its wealth. (Pathos) Politicians prospered (Alliteration) but the jobs left, and the factories closed (Logos, Parallelism). The establishment protected itself, but not the citizens of our country. Their victories have not been your victories their triumphs have not been your (Anaphora) triumphs and while they celebrated in our nations Capital, there was little to celebrate for struggling families all across our land. (Pathos) That all changes starting right here, and right now (Parallelism), because this moment is your moment it belongs to you. (Ethos, Pathos) It belongs to everyone gathered here today and everyone watching all across America. (Ethos) This is your day, this is your celebration. And this, the United States of America, is your country (Logos, Parallelism). What truly matters is not which party controls our government, but whether our government is controlled by the people. (Pathos) January 20th 2017 (Logos), will be remembered as the day the people became the rulers of this nation again (Pathos). The forgotten men and women of our country will be forgotten no longer. Everyone is listening to you now. You came by the tens of millions to become part of a historic movement the likes of which the world has never seen before. (Pathos) At the center of this movement is a crucial conviction (Pathos, Alliteration) that a nation exists to serve its citizens. Americans want great schools for their children, safe neighborhoods for their families, and good jobs for themselves (Parallelism, Tricolon). These are the just and reasonable demands of a righteous public. But for too many of our citizens, a different reality exists Mothers and children trapped in poverty in our inner cities rusted-out factories scattered like tombstones across the landscape of our nation an education system, flush with cash, but which leaves our young and beautiful students deprived of knowledge ( Pathos, Imagery, Metaphor) and the crime and gangs and drugs that have stolen too many lives and robbed our country of so much unrealized potential. This American carnage stops right here and stops right now. We are one nation and their pain is our pain (Pathos). Their dreams are our dreams and their success will be our success (Pathos, Parallelism, Tricolon). We share one heart, one home, and one glorious destiny (Pathos, Parallelism, Tricolon). The oath of office I take today is an oath of allegiance to all Americans (Pathos, Alliteration). For many decades, weve enriched foreign industry at the expense of American industry Subsidized the armies of other countries while allowing for the very sad depletion of our military weve defended other nations borders while refusing to defend our own (Pathos. Anaphora, Parallelism) and spent trillions of dollars overseas while Americas infrastructure has fallen into disrepair and decay (Pathos, Alliteration). Weve made other countries rich while the wealth, strength, and confidence of our country has disappeared over the horizon (Pathos, Metaphor). One by one, the factories shuttered and left our shores (Alliteration), with not even a thought about the millions upon millions of American workers left behind (Pathos). The wealth of our middle class has been ripped from their homes and then redistributed across the entire world (Pathos, Alliteration). But that is the past, and now we are looking only to the future (Ethos, Antithesis). We assembled here today are issuing a new decree to be heard in every city, in every foreign capital, and in every hall of power (Ethos, Anaphora, Parallelism). From this day forward, a new vision will govern our land. From this moment on, its going to be America First (Pathos). Every decision on trade, on taxes, on immigration, on foreign affairs (Parallelism), will be made to benefit American workers and American families (Logos). We must protect our borders from the ravages of other countries making our products, stealing our companies, and destroying our jobs (Parallelism). Protection will lead to great prosperity and strength. I will fight for (Alliteration) you with every breath in my body and I will never, ever let you down. America will start winning again, winning like never before. (Pathos) We will bring back (Alliteration) our jobs. We will bring back our borders (Alliteration). We will bring back our wealth. (Ethos) And we will bring back our dreams (Anaphora, Parallelism, Tricolon). We will build new roads, and highways, and bridges, and airports, and tunnels, and railways (Parallelism) all across our wonderful nation. We will get our people off of welfare and back to work rebuilding our country with American hands and American labor (Ethos). We will follow two simple rules (Anaphora) Buy American and Hire American. (Ethos) We will seek friendship and goodwill with the nations of the world but we do so with the understanding that it is the right of all nations to put their own interests first (Logos). We do not seek to impose our way of life on anyone, but rather to let it shine as an example for everyone to follow (Pathos, Antithesis, Metaphor). We will reinforce old alliances and form new ones and unite the civilized world against Radical Islamic Terrorism, which we will eradicate completely from the face of the Earth (Imagery, Pathos). At the bedrock of our politics will be a total allegiance to the United States of America, and through our loyalty to our country, we will rediscover our loyalty to each other. (Pathos) When you open your heart to patriotism, there is no room for prejudice (Metaphor, Pathos). The Bible tells us, How good and pleasant it is when Gods people live together in unity. (Allusion, Ethos) We must speak our minds openly, debate our disagreements honestly, but always pursue solidarity (Tricolon, Ethos). When America is united, America is totally unstoppable. There should be no fear we are protected, and we will always be protected. We will be protected by the great men and women of our military and law enforcement and, most importantly, we are protected by God. (Parallelism, Pathos) Finally, we must think big and dream even bigger (Ethos). In America, we understand that a nation is only living as long as it is striving. We will no longer accept politicians who are all talk and no action constantly complaining (Alliteration) but never doing anything about it. The time for empty talk is over. Now arrives the hour of action (Alliteration, Pathos). Do not let anyone tell you it cannot be done. No challenge can match the heart and fight and spirit of America (Metaphor, Tricolon, Pathos). We will not fail, as our country will thrive and prosper again (Antithesis). We stand at the birth of a new millennium, ready to unlock the mysteries of space, to free the Earth from the miseries of disease, and to harness the energies, industries and technologies of tomorrow (Pathos, Parallelism, Tricolon). A new national pride will stir our souls (Alliteration), lift our sights, and heal our divisions (Pathos, Imagery, Parallelism, Metaphor, Tricolon). It is time to remember that old wisdom our (Alliteration) soldiers will never forget that whether we are black or brown (Alliteration) or white, we all bleed the same red blood (Alliteration) of patriots, we all enjoy the same glorious freedoms, and we all salute the same (Parallelism, Alliteration) great American Flag (Metaphor, Pathos). And whether a child is born in the urban sprawl of Detroit or the windswept plains of Nebraska (Imagery, Antithesis, Metaphor), they look up at the same night sky, they fill their heart with the same dreams, and they are infused with the breath of life by the same almighty Creator (Pathos, Parallelism, Metaphor, Tricolon). So to all Americans, in every city near and far, small and large (Antithesis, Parallelism), from mountain to mountain, and from ocean to ocean, hear these words (Ethos) You will never be ignored again. Your voice, your hopes, and your dreams (Parallelism, Tricolon), will define our American destiny. And your courage and goodness and love will forever guide us along the way. (Ethos) Together, We Will Make America Strong Again. We Will Make America Wealthy Again. We Will Make America Proud Again. We Will Make America Safe Again. And, Yes, Together, We Will Make America Great Again. (Anaphora, Parallelism, Climax, Tricolon, Pathos) Thank you, God Bless You, And God Bless America. (Ethos) The following was the full text of JFKs inaugural address John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, Reverend Clergy, fellow citizens (Ethos) We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom–symbolizing an end as well as a beginning–signifying renewal as well as change (Ethos, Tricolon, Antithesis, Parallelism). For I have sworn before you and Almighty God (Allusion) the same solemn (Alliteration) oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three-quarters ago (Logos). The world is very different now (Logos). For man holds in his mortal (Alliteration) hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life (Logos, Anaphora). And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought (Alliteration) are still at issue around the globe–the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state but from the hand of God (Pathos, Antithesis). We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution (Ethos). Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe (Alliteration) alike, that the torch has been passed (Metaphor, Imagery) to a new generation of Americans–born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage (Pathos, Parallelism)–and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world (Ethos). Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well (Alliteration) or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden (Alliteration), meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe (Parallelism) to assure the survival and the success (Alliteration) of liberty (Ethos). This much we pledge (Anastrophe) –and more.(Ethos) To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends (Logos, Alliteration). United there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided there is little we can do (Antithesis)–for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder (Logos). To those new states whom we welcome to the ranks of the free (Logos), we pledge our word that one form of colonial control (Alliteration) shall not have passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny (Ethos). We shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall always (Anaphora) hope to find them strongly supporting (Alliteration) their own freedom–and to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger (Metaphor) ended up inside (Ethos, Pathos). To those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery (Alliteration, Logos, Pathos), we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves (Conduplicatio), for whatever period is required–not because the communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because (Anaphora) it is right (Ethos). If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.(Ethos, Parallelism) To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge–to convert our good words into good deeds (Conduplicatio)–in a new alliance for progress–to assist free men and free governments (Conduplicatio) in casting off the chains of poverty (Ethos, Metaphor). But this peaceful revolution of hope (Metaphor) cannot become the prey of hostile powers (Pathos). Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas (Logos). And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house (Pathos, Metaphor). To that world assembly of sovereign states (Alliteration), the United Nations (Logos), our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace (Conduplicatio), we renew our pledge of support–to prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective–to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak–and to enlarge the area in which its writ may run (Ethos, Alliteration). Finally, to those nations who would make themselves our adversary (Logos), we offer not a pledge but a request that both sides begin anew the quest for peace, before the dark powers of destruction (Alliteration) unleashed by science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction.(Ethos, Pathos) We dare not tempt them with weakness. For only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt (Parallelism) that they will never be employed (Logos). But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present course (Logos)–both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread (Alliteration) of the deadly atom, yet both (Anaphora) racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror (Metaphor) that stays the hand of mankinds final war.(Ethos) So let us begin anew–remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject (Alliteration) to proof (Ethos). Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.(Pathos, Chiasmus) Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us. (Ethos, Antithesis) Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms–and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control (Ethos, Conduplicatio) of all nations. Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths (Asyndeton) and encourage the arts and commerce.(Ethos) Let both sides (Anaphora) unite to heed in all corners of the earth the command of Isaiah–toundo the heavy burdens. . .(and) let the oppressed go free (Ethos, Sententia). And if a beachhead of cooperation (Metaphor) may push back the jungle of suspicion (Metaphor), let both sides join in creating a new endeavor, not a new balance of power, but a new world of law (Antithesis), where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved.(Ethos, Pathos, Polysyndeton, Alliteration) All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet (Anaphora, Climax). But let us begin.(Ethos) In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course (Ethos). Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty. The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe.(Pathos) Now the trumpet summons us again–not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need–not as a call to battle, though embattled we are– but a call to bear the burden (Alliteration) of a long twilight struggle (Tricolon, anaphora), year in and year out, rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation–a struggle against the common enemies of man tyranny, poverty, disease and war itself.(Ethos, pathos) Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global (Alliteration) alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind Will you join in that historic effort(Logos) In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility–I welcome it (Ethos). I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation (Ethos). The energy, the faith, the devotion (Asyndeton) which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it–and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.(Pathos) And so, my fellow Americans ask not what your country can do for you–ask what you can do for your country (Ethos, Pathos, Chiasmus). My fellow citizens of the world ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man (Ethos, Pathos, Antithesis).These are both memorizing line in the whole speech, and could be taken into the history of one of the most influential speeches just for this passage. Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice (Alliteration) which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love (Alliteration), asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth Gods work must truly be our own.(Ethos) Findings and Conclusion In answering the first research question of what were the differences between Mr. Trumps and JFKs usage of modes of persuasion I would like to propose that for Trumps application of logos, ethos, and pathos, there are 6 logos applied, 17 ethos used, and 35 pathos presented in his inaugural speech compared to JFKs inaugural address, there are 13 logos, 28 ethos, and 14 pathos. It is evident that Trump is good at applying pathos to create a favorable emotional affection from the audience toward the objective of the theme of his speech, make America great again. It is doubtless that there are various ways to achieve the emotional reaction of the audience, Trump still applied the way as what he did during his running of presidential campaign that was to make the opposite, and make the promise he cant keep, so it can be encompassed as his main theme of arousing feelings. The importance of arousing feelings and emotions in his delivery of the inaugural speech is a difficult as Aristotle claimed that the free will is merely an illusion and that most decisions making in using Pathos are taken unconsciously. Yet this is not uncontested in Trumps case. JFK tended to use ethos along with a bit of pathos and logos to enhance his stance of a president and to encourage the people of the United States to stay strong and stick together in asking what they can do for their own country. It is evident that JFKs usage of ethos is concerned with his self-portrayal as a president, and the ethos in his speech deals also with the conscious and unconscious demonstration of his character as positive, sincere, and dare to dream big during the delivery of the inaugural address. It is arguable the most essential of the three modes of persuasion in the modern practice and that is also why JFKs speech is treated as one of the most influential speech of the century. As for the second question what were the most frequently applied rhetorical devices in each of the inaugural address, and what could we learn from the usage of these rhetorical devices There are 8 different types of rhetorical devices that Trump applied during his inaugural speech besides the modes of persuasion, and out of 8 different types, there are 18 times of his usage of alliteration, 12 times of application of tricolon, and 10 times of the manipulation of metaphors. The frequently use of alliteration revealed Trump, like previous presidents of United States, would like to impress and mark his words upon the memories of American People with his catchy and easy to remember words. Tricolon along with metaphor were other touches Trump made during his inaugural address that aimed to make his words easy to memorize and not that hard to go into the mind of the audience with adolescent level words used. There are 15 different types of rhetorical devices involved in JFKs inaugural speech, and out of which the most frequently used, and the most prominent one is the using of alliteration. The usage of 21 times of alliteration indicates that JFK strives to make his speech to be much easier, catchy, and rhymed to make impress upon the audience. Implication It was perceive that Mr. Trump was self-confident with arrogantly expressive in his inaugural speech with never be uttered words and that was the very cornerstone made him gain the presidency in nowadays society with what Trumps calling fake. We could also perceive his ego-driven discourse features helped him win over disaffected workers, and other unsatisfied American citizens who considered themselves as victimized by the current corrupt government. Unlike JFKs sincerity, Trump with his outrageous style wining the heart of the public though the polls after the election indicated that the unsatisfied was a common word in most of the Americans, when it came to Trumps capability in handing the national affair. It could not be denied that unlike other nominees of the presidential campaign, Mr. Trumps election of the presidency was decided by general voters who were swayed through his simple and punchy remarks. It could also be perceived that Mr. Trump was tended to portray much of the rest of the world as enemies not only during his presidential campaign but during his delivery of the inaugural speech. The speech he made was quite a shock to most people, for no one ever thought how a businessman without any political background could won the election for the first time. All we could come up with was that above mentioned ego driven and overly expressive of his rhetorical devices were what made Mr.Trump unique, and who personally and unconventionally defined himself in his inaugural address. Reference ADDIN EN.REFLIST Aristotle. (1954). The rhetoric and the poetics of Aristotle. New York The Modern Library. Atkinson, M. (2011). JFKs inaugural speech Six secrets of his success. BBC News, p. January 19th. Bump, P. (2017). Trumps inaugural address was demonstrably bleak. Washington Post, January 20th. Expert, System. (2017). Donald Trump s inauguration speech Expert System analyzed the new American presidents speech to highlight the similarities and differences between President Bush in 2001 and President Obama in 2009. January 20th. Green, M. (2017). Opposing Visions Comparing Trump and Obama s Inauguration Addresses. January 23rd. Harris, R. A. (2013). A Handbook of Rhetorical Devices, January 19th. Mehltretter, S. A. (2009). John F. Kennedy,Inaugural Address(20 January 1961). Voices of Democracy, 4, 41-59. Rhetorical, Devices. (2018). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (January 6th). Running head DONALD J. TRUMPS APPLICATION OF RHETORICAL DEVICES PAGE MERGEFORMAT18 DONALD J. TRUMPS APPLICATION OF RHETORICAL DEVICES PAGE MERGEFORMAT2 Y, [email protected] 6Q