Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as felling and thoughts. Psychology means that the knowledge of brain.It is only through meanings that we make sense of our existence. In life we find meaning through a sense of purpose which makes life worthwhile. It understands the role of mental functions individuals and social behaviour while also exploring the psychological and biological process. There are many ways in which the psychology helps the person in their daily routine. With the help to psychology we can learn about our self. Psychology studies our nature how we think and how it is related to what we do and what we think. In my life psychology put a great effect in my personal life. One of the psychological concepts that sleep how it is important on my personal life? I spent most of my college time during the second semester of the class in a state of sleep deprivation. There was just so much work to do tests to study for, papers to read, and a dissertation to complete. At night, I stayed up as late as take cups of coffee would keep me awake; I set my alarm for 4:00 a.m. to get an early start on the next day. After a few hours of pre-dawn study, I headed to my 8:00 a.m. in economic class. Finding a seat in the back, I fell asleep. After that I learned the importance of sleep in my life. I easily understand what I read at the last night. But I was not able to tell anything in ways. As you go through the night, your brain cycles through four stages of sleep. Two stages include light sleep as well as third stage consist the deep sleeping. But most important of all is rapid eye movement sleep when the dreaming takes place. Some people need about two hours of REM sleep per night to feel fully rested and cognitively alert the next day, no matter how many total hours of shuteye they got. That is why people differ in how much total sleep they need. But most important of all is rapid eye movement sleep the stage in that stage dreaming takes place. Most people need about two hours of REM sleep per night to feel fully rested and cognitively alert the next day, no matter how many total hours of I got. With good sleep I feel fresh and I do my work with full of energy. There are also some drawbacks of sleep loss that is also the predictor of depression. It decreases the metabolic rate. It affects our physical health. That is why good sleep is better because it helps to relax our mind as well as to the body. In the study of prevalence of sleep disorders the authors mentioned that possible effect on work performance in two groups of Iranian shift workers and non-shift workers. In this survey they choose 210 shift workers and 204 non-shift workers including 470 questionnaires to complete that survey. The correlations between Occupational Impact of Sleep Disorder questionnaire and insomnia, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness are high and significant. Poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness was significantly higher in shift workers than non-shift workers. The study showed that the inferior quality of sleep can be seen in both shift workers and non-shift workers with a meaningful higher prevalence in the former. Different studies have reported higher incidence of tension, depression, and tiredness in shift workers. They are not hurtful when waking and are more tired along the day. (Yazdi, Z., Sadghniiat-Haghighi, K., Loukzadeh, Z., Elmizadeh, K., & Abbasi, M. 2014). The second concept is the critical thinking. Critical thinking is a kind of good thinking that integrates a set of cognitive skills and dispositions to use those skills with knowledge to increase the chances of success in academic settings, job market, and daily life. If critical thinking does impact the outcomes of everyday decisions and actions, the impact may vary according to individual characteristics. People often have their own definitions of critical thinking, but in my mind, critical thinking consists of two main parts. First, there is the skill set and the second one is a mindset. We are very good at challenging the claims of other people, but we are very bad at challenging our own claims. But while the mindset is more difficult to develop, it is also where these all benefits come from. During early college, critical thinking helped me realize that I made a lot of conscious to develop the critical thinking of mindset. For example, I have become very moderate. Critical thinking helped me notice that hardly anything is as black and white as the two major parties want you to think it is, and neither party has all the answers. I also have the example of critical thinking is taking a deep breath and close the eyes before reacting when a friend or family member does something that upsets us. Taking time to focus helps us look at the whole picture and make decision based on facts instead of feelings. I always do the thing in life. When I am so nervous. These things help in my future when I am confused and over-thinking. It also helps us take better care of our mental health by dropping our stress levels. In the study of clear and organized instruction to learning affect growth in critical thinking the authors analyze longitudinal student survey data from the 17- institution Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education to determine the extent that the influence of overall exposure to clear and organized instruction on four-year growth in two measures of cognitive development is mediated by student use of deep approaches to learning. The findings suggest that effect of clear and organized instruction is significantly transmitted by all three dimensions of deep learning higher-order learning, reflective learning, and integrative learning. The findings for critical thinking skills were more indefinite. While exposure to clear and organized instruction had significant net total and direct effects on fourth-year critical thinking skill. The overall total indirect of the effects through deep approaches to learning, whereas the 8% of the total effect was small and not statistically significant. The clear and organized classroom instruction was significantly linked to increased use of reflective approaches to learning. Students may have more time to focus on the growth of higher-level learning and critical thoughts. (Wang, J., Pascarella, E. T., Nelson Laird, T.F., & Ribera, A.K., 2015). The third psychological concept is that sensation temporary memory of our sensory inputs before it gets transferred to short-term memory. The information comes from five senses such as vision, hearing, touch, smell, taste. A blind man may not have visual memory but he could acquire the information through other available senses. Without the senses, information could not be acquired.
The fourth concept is Cognitive learning means that the process the brain takes to learn. Cognitive refers to the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. In contrast, behavioural learning, which is an outdated theory that we learn only through interactions with external stimuli. Cognitive learning allows for learning to occur as a result the thoughts regarding things you have learned, and the interactions between things you have already learned. (For example, some students learn better by watching, others by listening and writing. Observing this, and identifying which students are which, a good teacher will take these approaches into account and more profitable transmit knowledge to the students. It helps to introduce many factors such a like exercise, emotions, mood, interest, and experimentation in the learning process. The study of the correlation between learning motivation and metacognitive skill on student’s cognitive learning outcome simultaneously in classes when a teacher taught by different learning strategies. The sample of this study made up of 142 students first-grade classrooms of Faculty of Mathematics and Science in the State University of Makassar, Indonesia. The present study of biology taught by using different learning strategies such as conventional, Problem-Based Learning Reading Questioning and Answering learning strategies. The contribution of metacognitive skills to cognitive learning outcome was much greater than the contribution of learning motivation. The correlation between learning motivation, metacognitive skill, and cognitive learning outcome is very strong. The survey shows that the contribution of metacognitive skill on cognitive learning outcome is very high. It proved that the metacognitive skill training increase awareness in students related to learning plans their learning. (Bahri, A., ; Corebima, A.D. 2015).
Wang, J., Pascarella, E. T., Nelson Laird, T. F., ; Ribera, A. K. (2015). How clear and organize organized classroom instruction and deep approaches to learning affect growth in critical thinking and need for cognition. Studies in Higher education, 40(10), 1786-1807. doi:10.1080/03075079.2014.914911
Yazdi, Z., Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, K., Loukzadeh, Z., Elmizadeh, K., ; Abbasi, M. (2014). Prevalence of Sleep Disorders and Their Impacts on Occupational Performance: A Comparison between Shift Workers and Non-shift Workers. Sleep Disorders, 1. doi:10.1155/2014/870320
Bahri, A., ; Corebima, A. D. (2015). THE CONTRIBUTION OF LEARNING MOTIVATION AND METACOGNITIVE SKILL ON COGNITIVE LEARNING OUTCOME OF STUDENTS WITHIN DIFFERENT LEARNING STRATEGIES. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 14(4), 487-500.