Research in Counselling Tshoganetso Tlhako 201505106 Effects of Postpartum Depression on Child Emotional Development University of Botswana CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Introduction Chapter 3 will sketch the research design

Research in Counselling
Tshoganetso Tlhako 201505106
Effects of Postpartum Depression on Child Emotional Development
University of Botswana
CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
Introduction
Chapter 3 will sketch the research design, the population of the study, the sampling procedure and sample size, the data collection procedure, the data analysis and ethical considerations.

Research Design
Qualitative Study is mainly a probing research. It is used to increase an understanding of fundamental explanations, views, and inspirations. It offers visions into the problem or helps to advance notions or hypotheses for possible quantitative research. Qualitative research is also used to expose tendencies in thought and views, and plunge deeper into the problem. Qualitative data collection methods differ using unstructured or semi-structured techniques. The central aim of my research is explore the opinions and thoughts of women on postpartum depression and the effects it has on the emotional development of their children.

Population of the Study
(Hollen, P. 1982) stated that the population is a collective or total of all the objects, subjects or members that follow to a set of conditions. In this study the population will be Batswana pregnant and nursing women in Molalatau of all age groups, educational status and socio-economic status who have or a suffering from postpartum depression.

Sample Size
The procedure of selecting a portion of the population to signify the whole population is known as sampling this was stated by (Hayes, B., Muller, R. & Bradley, B. 2001). The method of purposive sampling will be employed to advance the sample of the research. Conferring to this method belonging to the group of non-probability sampling techniques, sample members are nominated on the basis of their information, relationships and skills pertaining a research topic this was stated by (Harker, L. & Thorpe, K. 1992). The sample members who will be selected are suffering or had suffered from postpartum depression. A number of women who had and were suffering from postpartum depression from year 2015 to date will be selected from the antenatal registry books.

Data Collection
Fowles, E. (1998) described data as information gained in a course of a study. For the determinations of this research, in depth interviews will be used. In depth interviews are private and unstructured interviews, whose goal is to recognize participant’s emotions, feelings, and views concerning a specific research subject. The main benefit of private interviews is that they include personal and straight contact among interviewers and interviewees, as well as remove non-response rates, but interviewers need to have established the essential skills to effectively carry an interview these was stated by (Epperson, C. 1999). On the other hand unstructured interviews offer flexibility in terms of the flow of the interview, thereby creating no room for the generation of assumptions that were not originally meant to be derived regarding a research subject. Respondents will be allowed to select a site for the interview them self for example at their own house, at the hospital or at any other place they may choose. The interview is estimated to last on last typically for an hour. The interviews will be completed and recorded during face-to-face interviews using a Sebirwa version of the interview paper. The interviews will be held during December 2018 up until January 2019.

Data Analysis
Content analysis will be used to examine the information which will be collected from interviews. Conferring to what was stated by (Deaves, D. 2001). This is the type of research whereby information is collected is branded in themes and sub-themes, so as to enable them to be comparable. A key benefit of content analysis is that it helps in data collected being reduced and shortened, while at the same time creating results that may then be measured using quantitative techniques. On top of all these content analysis gives the capability for researchers to structure the qualitative data gathered in a way that pleases the achievement of research objectives. However, human error is highly involved in content analysis, since there is the risk for researchers to misunderstand the information collected, therefore causing false and unreliable decisions (Beck, C. ; Gable, R. 2001).

Ethical Consideration
Every woman will be fully educated about the nature of the research and invited to participate. No payment will be paid and no woman will agonize any ill effect for declining to participate in the interview. Every female who agrees to contribute will sign a form. As most contributors will sebirwa speaking, the consent form will be available in English as well as in sebirwa and also the interviews which are prepared in English will be translated into Sebirwa.

APPENDIX A
Consent Form
Dear Madam
INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH STUDY
I am presently a bachelor of education in guidance and counselling student at the University of Botswana. I am conducting a research study, titled: “The effects of postpartum depression on the emotional development of a child. The goal of my study is to explore if postpartum depression has any effect on the emotional development of a child. As you have knowledge with postpartum depression I appeal for your contribution in this research which will involve narrating your experience with postpartum depression while I record you as well as permitting me an interview afterwards. I shall be offer you with a ready guide to guide you on your narrative story and it will focus on your experience with postpartum depression and the effect it had on your young child’s emotional development. An interview will then be conducted, where I will ask you detailed questions to gain more clarity on some facets of postpartum depression and the impact it has on your child’s emotional development. This interview will be audio-recorded to permit me to revisit the discussion. All the data will be treated with severe confidentiality and anonymity which means that I will not make use of your name anywhere in my research and interviews. You may choose to withdraw from the research procedure at any phase. The discoveries of the study may deliver mothers who struggle with postpartum depression with data and strategies on how to battle the negative impact of this condition on the emotional development of their children. I hope that you will analyze my request positively as to allow me to conduct my research in an ethical manner. Your response is greatly appreciated.

Yours sincerely:
Tshoganetso Tlhako Signature …………………… B.Ed. student in guidance and counselling at University of Botswana.

APPENDIX B
Narrative InterviewThe purpose of the narrative interview is for you to share your story as part of the information collection for my research. Through your perspective I will be able to gather more rich and in-depth information to answer my research questions. When you narrate your story, please be as expressive as possible. The following are only procedures to help you with narrating your story with respect to your experience of postpartum depression:
Initial symptoms of your depression.

The signs that you experienced.

The emotional state that you had for your baby.

The effect your experiences could have on your baby (crying, sleeping problems, feeding problems etc.).

The attachment that shaped between you and your baby and which influenced your association with your child – as baby and also currently.

The sustenance you received (loved ones/friends/spirituality/institutions etc.

APPENDIX C
Interview Questions
1. How did you feel when you learnt for the first time you were pregnant? Probe: Can you define your feelings?
2. I would like to know if you already experienced feelings of depression during your pregnancy.

3. Was there an exact incident or emotions that you experienced that was a sign that something was wrong before you were diagnosed?
4. Please describe your feelings directly after the birth of your child. Did you emotions alter after the first few months? If yes, how?
5. When did you recognize you are battling with postpartum depression? How did you take it?
6. How long did you wait before you checked a doctor about your depression? Give reasons for your answer
7. What were your views about anti-depressants or any other forms of medication?
8. Did you ever join a support group or any other form of support apart from your family and friends? Explain your answer.

9. What support systems, if any did you have after the birth of your child?
10. What part do you think a mother plays in the emotional growth of her young child?
11. Do you think your depression inclined your child’s emotional growth? If yes, how?
12. Did you ever get outer support to help your child’s growth in general/with his/her emotional development? If yes, did the support help? Explain your answer.

13. Were there any outer issues that could have activated your postpartum depression? How did you deal with these issues? (E.g. stress at home, marriage difficulties, financial problems)
14. Were there any inner issues that you were fighting with at that stage that could have activated your depression? (Maybe depression from an early age, other psychological factors, low self-esteem)
15. What type of support could have helped you at that stage to overcome postpartum depression?
16. What assisted you finally to overcome the depression? Or are you still fighting the signs of depression?
17. What guidance can you give to mothers who are suffering from postpartum depression?
REFERENCES
Beck, C. & Gable, R. (2001). Further validation of the postpartum depression screening scale. Nursing Research
Deaves, D. (2001). Prevention and management of postnatal depression. Community Practitioner.

Epperson, C. (1999). Postpartum major depression: Detection and treatment. American Family Physician
Fowles, E. (1998). Labor concerns of women two months after delivery. Birth
Harker, L. & Thorpe, K. (1992). “The last egg in the basket?” Elderly prim parity – A review of findings birth.
Hayes, B., Muller, R. & Bradley, B. (2001). Perinatal depression: A randomized controlled trial of an antenatal education intervention for primiparas birth
Hollen, P. (1982). Parents’ perceptions of parenting support systems. Pediatric Nursing.