Siva Bharathi K R Department

Siva Bharathi K R Department. of ECE Sri Krishna college of Engineering and TechnologyCoimbatore, [email protected] R Department. of ECE PSG college of TechnologyCoimbatore, [email protected] Security is an important perspective to be considered while designing any network. Security issues may occur at any level of the network. We concentrate on Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), where these networks provide information-based diagnosis of diseases thus enhancing early treatment. With constrained resources, implementing security algorithms within WBAN becomes a tedious task. We consider a two-level dynamic WBAN network with star topology to analyze the security paradigms. Mutual authentication between the nodes in vital as each node transmits life-critical data. Using HMAC, mutual authentication between the nodes is established by a secret key and SHA 256 provides a better cryptographic hash function. All the nodes in the network have their own secret key and upon authentication, they produce the corresponding hash. An attacker without the knowledge of the secret key will be unable to produce the hash function. The throughput and end to end delay are obtained and the results are compared before and after the introduction of a man in the middle attack. Keywords Security, Authentication, anonymity, attacks, cryptographic protocols Introduction Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), a wireless network comprising of numerous wearable, computing devices are categorized under special purpose Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for remote monitoring and tracking the health care of people. The functionality of these networks depends on the communication of these wearable devices with one another or to the external devices through internet. WBANs play a key role in keeping track of the health parameters such as sugar level, Blood pressure level, heart beat rate, cholesterol levels etc of the patients as well as normal people. WBANs involve a number of physiological sensors to be implemented in human body which enables continuous tracking and monitoring of the persons health parameters. If any abnormal values transpire, the WBAN alerts the medical practitioner and necessary aids are conveyed. With the advancements in the field of wireless technology, sensors and communication, WBANs can provide cost effective healthcare to the society. A typical WBAN node consists of a sensor or actuator, a controller, a power unit, memory and a transceiver device. Since WBAN nodes are resource constrained and hence it necessitates the use of simple cryptographic primitives so as to compensate the computing power as well as to save energy. Apart from health care, WBANs find their applications in defense, sports, lifestyle, entertainment, travel, retail, industry etc 6. IEEE 802.15.6 is a widely accepted standard for WBAN which includes seven protocols concerning security 13 namely, MK pre-shared association procedure, unauthenticated key agreement protocol, hidden public key transfer authenticated key agreement protocol, password authenticated association procedure, Display authenticated association procedure, PTK creation procedure and security dissociation procedure. The standard defines three PHY layers, the Narrowband (NB), the Ultrawideband (UWB) and Human Body Communication (HBC) 14 and it also ensures three different levels of security. The first level corresponds to unsecure communication, the second level to secure communication with authentication only and the third level corresponds to secure communication with authentication and encryption. The third level corresponds to the highest level of security in the standard which provides solutions to all the drawbacks in the network. The PHY layer and the level of security is to be chosen according to our applications. Due to the resource constraints and the nature of the network, WBANs are prone to vulnerable security threats and attacks. Attacks may occur in all the layers of the OSI model. These attacks cause very severe security issues and degrades the performance of the network. Some of the attacks include jamming, tempering, collision, Hello flood attacks, Worm hole attacks, Black hole attacks, Sybil attack, flooding, Desynchronization attacks and DoS attacks 11. Despite these attacks WBANs are prone to a number of security threats such as unauthenticated access, unauthorized access, message disclosure, modification of key etc. Moreover, the data stored within WBAN faces threats due to node or device compromise and also due to the network dynamics 5. These facts enable numerous challenges in WBAN such as to ensure the data quality, data management, data consistency, data originality and Data privacy for secure communication. Literature explains the various cryptographic protocols and key agreement protocols proposed for the security of Wireless Body Area Networks. A visual confirmation of sensor pairing is provided by a synchronized LED blinking pattern and keychains 2. A 1-round anonymous authentication protocol 7 establish security to the transmitted and stored data prone to further diagnosis and treatment. Elliptic curve cryptography and bilinear mapping techniques are used for enhancing communication between first and second level nodes thus improving anonymity 3. After client validation, Certificate Authority (CA) issues and maintain a pool of certificates to the clients 8. Various IBC based systems are proposed wherein which a client uses his identity as public key and the key generation center generates a private key 9. Partial private keys are generated based on the master key and user identity by the Key Generation Centre as an alternative to IBC systems 10. A light-weight cloud aided protocol for authentication is explained in 4 where the users identity is not revealed at the time of A three Level Architecture of WBAN authentication. A light weight protocol for mutual and anonymous authentication 1 is proposed for enhancing the energy efficiency and reducing the computation and communication cost. WBAN Architecture The general WBAN architecture in healthcare can be categorized into three different levels, the first level being the wearable sensors implanted in/on body of the patients, the second level being the first level data transmitted to the local servers or access points or to the health care personnels and the third level implies the storage of data in the internet database or in the cloud for people to access from anywhere around the globe. In other words, the first level corresponds to raw data generation, second level processes the data generated in the first level and the later stores the data in the cloud for future or remote access. A typical architecture of WBAN is illustrated in Fig. 1. Attacks in wbans An attack is any threat to the network to modify, expose, destroy, disable, to make unauthorized access or use the data in the network. The cryptographic algorithms implemented in the network should be capable of securing the network from these attacks. This section describes various attacks in WBAN that causes vulnerable network degradation. Eavesdropping attack This refers to an interception in a network at times of real time communication by an unauthorized individual. This attack leads to overhearing of the networks sensitive data finally resulting in node failure and performance degradation. Impersonation attack The attacker assumes the identity of one or more nodes in the network and obtains all the information to that node. It then alters or modifies the messages resulting in fake messages over the network resulting in network failure 15. Replay attack It is also referred to as playback attack wherein which the transmission of valid data in the network is delayed or repeated fraudulently in the network. This results in lack of data freshness. The best possible way to overcome replay attacks is to adapt proper encryption methods and a password which is used once and then discarded. Man in the middle attack In this case, the adversary node secretly interrupts the information between the two nodes in a network, modifies the message and transmits it between the nodes 16 making them believe that they are communicating directly with one another. We introduce this attack in our network and the performance is evaluated in this paper. Jamming This is a physical layer attack in which the intruder sends a random radio signal that interferes with the actual signal. Numerous solutions such as spread spectrum, Random code key selection, honey nodes 17 are employed to overcome the problem of jamming. Resilience to node capture attack Resilience to node capture attack refers to the capture of a sensor node by an attacker, obtain its cryptographic information and alter the node programming. The attacker then places the altered node in the network causing serious security threats. A cost-effective method to overcome this attack is the use of tamper resistance hardware 18. Sink hole attack Here an adversary behaves as a blackhole and attracts all the traffic in the network, thus directing the network traffic to a particular location. This attack is capable of affecting the long-distance nodes too thus causing the degradation of performance even in larger networks. A Cumulative Acknowledgement based Detection (CADE) scheme is used to prevent sinkhole attacks. Worm hole attack Here an adversary node gets packets from a location in the network and tunnels it to a malicious node located at a longer distance. Tunnels are created in such a manner that the tunneled packets reach the malicious location much sooner than that reaching the destination. Algorithms such as the path tracing approach and the DAWWSEN 20 method are used to prevent these wormhole attacks. Sybil attack These attacks are a great threat to network security leading to many fake identities causing disruption of the network. The adversary node does not resemble any node of the network but assumes the identity of several other nodes in the network. This degrades the data integrity, privacy and also the effective utilization of network resources. One effective method to prevent sybil attacks is the Message Authentication and Passing (MAP) algorithm 21. Hello flood attack This is the one in which the adversary sends a powerful HELLO packet to all the nodes in a network trying to convince the nodes to route packets through it. A modified centralized IDS scheme 22 can be adapted o overcome Hello flood attacks. Flooding This is a transport layer attack where a malicious node broadcasts numerous requests for connection establishment to a particular node in a network thus wasting all of its power resources. This attack can be prevented by limiting the number of connections to a particular node in the network and using client puzzles 23. Desynchronization attacks The adversaries desynchronize the active source and destination points by copying and transmitting messages multiple times using a fake sequence number thus wasting the nodes energy making it to leave the network. Methodology We consider a network with a set of nodes arranged in star topology. The energy of each and every individual node is calculated and the nodes with the maximum energy are selected as the controller nodes of the network. The purpose of controller nodes is to collect the data generated by the intermediate nodes viz primary and the secondary. The primary node communicates directly with the controller node to generate a key K and if a secondary node requires to communicate with the CN, it does it only through a primary node which now acts as an intermediate node. Hash mechanisms are used as cryptographic primitives wherein which a hash function accepts an input of any length and delivers an output of fixed length. To inculcate the security paradigms in our network, we make use of the Hash based Message Authentication Code (HMAC) along with SHA-256 cryptographic algorithm. SHA 256 algorithm is a cryptographic algorithm with a digest length of 256 bits. It is one of the available strongest hash functions. Since it makes use of 256 bis, it goes well with the AES standard. It encrypts the intermediate hash function with the message as the key. It makes use of the compression function and the message schedule. HMAC is a special type of Message Authentication Code that utilizes a cryptographic hash function and a secret key. HMAC does not perform any encryption in the message but the message whether it is encrypted or not, is transmitted alongside with the hash. Nodes with the secret key will hash among themselves and if it seems authentic, the hashes will match. The HMAC function is defined 12 as, (1) Where, QUOTE Cryptographic Hash function QUOTE – Secret key QUOTE block-sized key derived from the secret key x Message to be authenticated QUOTE -Bit-wise XOR operation opad Outer padding ipad inner padding The data generated by the nodes undergo the above-mentioned hash function and an XOR operation to enhance the security. The function is explained below Append zeros to the end of the secret key (k) to generate a block sized key ( QUOTE XOR QUOTE with ipad. Append the message x to QUOTE resulted from the XOR operation. Apply the hash function to the output generated. Now XOR QUOTE with opad. Append the hashed result to the result of above step. Apply hash function to the stream resulted from the above step and output the result. To analyze the security, we introduce a Man in the Middle attack to the network and the performance is verified. An adversary node A listens to the traffic, interferes with the nodes and try to modify the messages. The HMAC provides the communicating nodes the secret key to produce the hash function. The adversary, A will not be able to generate a hash function to authenticate since it could not recognize the secret key and hence a mismatch between the hash occurs and further communication by the adversary is prohibited. Results and discussions We have simulated the network in NS2 using Ubuntu platform. The parameters such as throughput and end to end delay are evaluated to validate the performance of our network and the same is used to compare the network performance before and after the introduction of a Man in the middle attack. Authentication between the nodes is important to analyze the originality and origin of the message. Authentication plays a key role in security as both the source and destination nodes know the identity of each other before actual data communication. A security analysis on any network should provide or ensure protection of the network from all of the known attacks. Obtained results are illustrated and discussed below. Fig. 2(a) Throughput of our Network before MIM attack Fig. 2(b) Throughput of our Network before MIM attack Fig. 3. End to end delay of our Network Results of Throughput Throughput may be defined as the number of bits transmitted per unit time. Throughput becomes an important parameter in indicating the performance of a network thus it acts as a measure of network quality. Throughput is mathematically expressed as, (2) where QUOTE Delivery time of packets QUOTE Packet size QUOTE Total number of packets received Fig.2(a) and Fig.2(b) illustrates the network throughput by simulation. It is observed that the throughputs before and after introducing the attack remains almost same and thus it is clear that HMAC SHA 256 protects the network from Man in the middle attack. If the number of nodes in the network is scaled to a higher value, it is possible to obtain even more throughput. Results of End to End Delay End to end delay can be defined as the average time taken by the packets to reach from source to destination. End to end delay depends on the transmission delay, propagation delay, computational delay and the queuing delay of the network. Larger end to end delays results in decreasing the network lifetime thus degrading the performance of the network. It is calculated as (3) where QUOTE time when packets received QUOTE time when packets transmitted p Total number of packets transmitted Fig.3 illustrates the end to end delay of the network by simulation. It is observed that the end to end delay remains almost the same before and after the Man in the middle attack in the network throughout its performance. Conclusion WBAN has become an emerging technology that can promise improved advancements in healthcare and non-medical applications. Since WBANs are resource constrained networks and deal with life critical data, security becomes a major concern. In this paper, Mutual Authentication between nodes is provided by a secret key and any node without the knowledge of the secret key will not be able to authenticate in the network. Our study extends in improving the security in WBANs. In this paper, we have generated a two tier WBAN network and analyzed its security. We have made use of the HMAC function along with the SHA-256 algorithm for security analysis. Moreover, we have simulated the network and the results are discussed. Our future work will focus on implementing a new security algorithm for WBANs satisfying the demanding security requirements of the network when used for heterogeneous applications. References M. H. Ibrahim, S. Kumari, A. K. Das, M. Wazid, and V. Odelu, Secure anonymous mutual authentication for star two-tier wireless body area networks, Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, vol. 135, pp. 37-50, 2016. S. L. Keoh, E. Lupu, and M. Sloman, Securing body sensor networks Sensor association and key management, in Pervasive Computing and Communications, 2009. PerCom 2009. IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2009, pp. 1-6. J. Liu, Z. Zhang, X. Chen, and K. S. 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