To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel, written by Harper Lee and it manages the subjects of race, class and gender roles. It is the story of a brother and sister, Jem and Scout Finch, who live in a small Alabama town with their lawyer father, Atticus. The two siblings, along with their friend Dill, become fascinated with a scary old house on their street called the Radley Place. The house is owned by Nathan Radley, whose brother, Arthur (nicknamed Boo), has lived there for many years without ever coming out. The narrator in the novel is called Scout Finch, and the story is told from the perspective of her. Since she is a child, she is, naturally, prone to ask questions about why whites treat blacks the way they do. Scout wants to comprehend what racism means and how it affects the people in her life. The vast majority of the general population are supremacist and prejudicial. They have pitiless sentiments and judgments about black people in the town. The main subject of the novel is prejudice and forms of prejudice including racism, classism, and sexism are portrayed by Maycomb’s citizens.
Pierre Berton, a noted Canadian author’s well-said quote; “Racism is a refuge for the ignorant. It seeks to divide and to destroy. It is the enemy of freedom, and deserves to be met head-on and stamped out.” demonstrates the destruction of the 1930s’ occurred by the racist thought. Racism and its destruction never ceased during this time, it continued moving. Therefore, the 1930s’ racial separation made it a tremendous battle for the African Americans in their everyday life.
There was no justice for a black man in 1930s’ Alabama town as well. In the book, almost every character is either exposed to prejudice directly or involved in a situation that contains prejudice. For instance, Tom Robinson who is a kind person, helps Mayella, a white woman, at whatever point she required help (Lee, 197). Scout became more acquainted with Tom a superior than previously and turns out saying to his father that Tom was a kind and nice guy (281). Tom helps Mayella by fixing a door and wardrobe for her. He feels sorry for her and fixes whatever needs to be fixed for her without hesitation. Tom’s being so kind to a white person, astonished others on the grounds that typically black people are not all that kind to a white person like Mayella. The primary feeling in this is Tom is feeling frustrated about Mayella that nobody is helping her. On the other hand, according to others Tom raped Mayella and harassed her physically because she has marks on her face and neck (185).
Then this case is brought to trial. Meanwhile, Atticus agrees to defend him. He provides enough evidence to prove that Tom is innocent and that Bob Ewell, Mayella’s father, is responsible for the marks on her face and neck. However, the jury consists of all white people that convicts Tom any way. Even though Atticus’s evidence was pretty powerful and enough to prove that Tom is not guilty, the jury made a decision against Tom. However hard they tried to convince jury that Tom is not guilty, they could not succeed in convincing. During the time of the book, it was the time of 1930s’ when separation and racism was happening. Before Judge Taylor reads Tom’s guilty verdict, Scout notices that the jury refuses to look at Tom Robinson. Sheriff Tate then hands Judge Taylor a piece of paper with the jury’s final decision written on it. Judge Taylor then reads the verdict by saying, “Guilty…guilty… guilty…guilty…” (233). Scout says that each “guilty” is a “separate stab” between Jem’s shoulders. Jem and other children lost their innocence as they see how things work. They witnessed that it does not matter whether a person is really guilty or not even in the court of justice, what matters only is skin color. In the end, Tom lost the battle against society because of his color. He is shot while he is trying to “escape” from prison.
During his testimony against Tom, Bob Ewell shows how racist he is by saying, “I’ve asked my county for fifteen years to clean out that nest down yonder, they’re dangerous to live around sides devaluin’ my property” (193). He reflects his feelings towards black people including Tom. According to him, they are useless, rude and they can also steal the belongings of the Maycomb folks. He introduces them as they are posing danger so they should be wiped out of Maycomb.
After the trial and death of Tom Robinson, Bob Ewell nourishes Atticus, Judge Taylor, and Tom’s wife, Helen, hatred groundlessly. He tries to harm Judge Taylor, Scout and Jem just because their father is sided with Tom Robinson in the trial. But he fails to give harm to innocent people and in the end, he is the only one who passed away. His hatred of black people leads him to his own end.
When it comes to the white side, Bob Ewell is the most racist, but there is another side, and Lula is the racist in this side. There is a church that called the First Purchase Church and only black people are permitted to attend the church. One day, Calpurnia wants to take Jem and Scout with her to the First Purchase Church but Lula stops them and says Calpurnia, “You ain’t got no business bringin’ white children here – they got their church and we ours'” (131). Lula’s objection to Jem and Scout shows that she accepts black and white segregation in the town. Racial prejudice is the main theme in the book. During the trial Bob Ewell and at the church Lula present their racist and ill thoughts.
Separately, what Calpurnia experienced in the book is another example. She is the faithful housekeeper for Finch family and mother figure to Jem and Scout. Since she is black, Aunt Alexandra thinks that Calpurnia is not a good role model for Scout. Calpurnia is a black woman and a mother figure to Atticus’ children, but Aunt Alexandra thinks she is not a good role model for Scout and asked Atticus to tell Calpurnia that there is no need for her to remain in the house anymore. Knowing Calpurnia’s good influence on his children, Atticus got very angry with his sister and told her that Calpurnia was a member of the family and would not be leaving until she wants to leave. He knows that Calpurnia has an undeniable positive impact on raising Jem and Scout. Additionally, Aunt Alexandra feels uncomfortable talking serious matters when Calpurnia is around. At every opportunity, she otherizes her and tries to make her feel like an outsider. Abraham Joshua Herschel, a Polish-born American rabbi, by saying “Racism is man’s gravest threat to man – the maximum of hatred for a minimum of reason.” illustrates how nonsense to bear grudge against someone because of his or her skin color.
According to the book, there are different types of social classes can be seen in Maycomb county. What separates Maycomb’s people into these classes is primarily color of their skin then the level of education they take. For example, Atticus, Jem and Scout belong to the highest social class. They belong to this social class because Atticus is a lawyer. Being lawyer, additionally being white, makes him a highly respected person in the community. Scout and Jem are his children and therefore are also part of this social class.
Another person who belongs to the same social class is Miss Maudie Atkinson, a gentle, ladylike and spunky woman. She is grown up with the Finch’s and an old friend of theirs. She is now Atticus’s neighbor, and also Scout and Jem count her as a friend.
Since she acts as an ideal southern lady, Aunt Alexandra also belongs to this highest class. In this social class, it is important to be kind to other people regardless of their occupation. Treating them with appreciation and being hospitable to them is unwritten but important as a written law among white people.
Invitation of Walter Cunningham by Jem to the dinner is an example of this rule. During dinner Scout notices that Walter is using syrup generously and she says rudely, “But he’s gone and drown his dinner in syrup,” “He’s poured it all over-” Calpurnia interrupts by requesting her presence to the kitchen (27). Scout is punished by Calpurnia. Walter belongs to a lower class and he is their guest. It was rude to begrudge him syrup. She should be thoughtful and should know that everyone is just not the same and their eating habits can differ.
Mrs. Henry Layafette DuBose is one of the people who belong to the lower class. She is a woman who taunts children when they pass by. She is a rude woman and the way she talks to her community members reveals that she is not a part of the higher social class. She should be nice and respectful to the white people of Maycomb, like Jem. Even though she is kind to Atticus’s face, she backbites him. This is not a proper behavior which is expected to be displayed by a member of the highest social class.
Another social class consists of the poor. They are respected because they are white. After all what determines one’s social class primarily is his or her skin color. The Cunninghams belong to this social class. They maintain their life with the money borrowed. In return for the money borrowed, they give items from their farm.
Under them, in terms of status, are the Ewells, who are poor and disgusting. They are completely rude and so are their children, but they are still in a higher social class than black people since they are white.
There is another class of wealthy or middle-class black people. The reason why Calpurnia belongs to this class is her skin color. She has the same qualities as Aunt Alexandra. She can be counted as an ideal southern lady. She is a part of the Finch family and is respected. Had she not been a black person, she would be in the highest social class as Atticus Finch is.
Reverend Skyes is another member of the middle-class black people. He met Jem and Scout in church and showed his respect for them and their father for being his side as a white person, in the Tom Robinson case. He gave them a warm welcome and treated them friendly, therefore in the same class as Calpurnia.
The lowest social class consists of poor and black people. Lula belongs to this social class. She is the disgrace of the black people and her motto is that the black people should stick to own community and the white should stay with theirs. She accepts that they are separated. She is pitiless to both Calpurnia who is of her own kind and two innocent kids, Jem and Scout.
There is something weird about black people, the majority of them are mature. They have no objection to insufficient importance that given to their work. They do not revolt what is attributed to them. They accept being subservient, and worse things given to them like the First Purchase Church which is a rundown place. No matter how much they yielded to white people, they are not accepted by them. For the whites, blacks dangerousness remains. People who put an end to something are still in the white race. The fact that white people don’t treat white people equally contributes greatly to the way the social classes are separated.
In addition to all these, during the time of racial discrimination, there is an ongoing separation in gender as well. In America at that time, there was a term “Southern belle”. The women is characterized by Southern hospitality, a cultivation of beauty and a winning smile. Women were supposed to be feminine. They were expected to have a good accent, good manners. They must be look after their family and take care of their children. In the book, Scout is made to conform to gender roles and this makes her unhappy with her situation. She is forced to wear a dress on the first day of the school but the dress she wears made her feel comfortless. She does not feel like she is herself in it. However, she has to wear it because she has no choice but to keep up with it.
She is always in the companionship with his brother Jem and their friend Dill. As growing up, she finds herself on the receiving comments from the boys such as, “Scout, I’m telling you for the last time, shut your trap or go home-I declare to the lord you’re gettin’ more like a girl every day” (57). Every time she warns Jem not to accept foolish dares and not to endanger himself, Jem emphasises that she lacks strength and courage. She remains silent and does not yield to any comment against her. Afterwards she would be excluded from joining adventures with them.
As the time passes, she becomes distant from the two boys, who externalize her. The two boys start to spend more time together. This caused Scout to come closer to the strong female of the book, Miss Maudie Atkinson. When Scout is left out of games by Jem and Dill, she takes shelter in Miss Maudie’s friendship. Miss Maudie is an optimistic woman who sees the bright side of every situation. When her house is half burnt down in a fire, she says, “Always wanted a smaller house, Jem Finch. Gives me more yard. Just think, I’ll have more room for my azaleas now!” (80).
She becomes a figure Scout respects and trusts for advice, unlike other ladies in the town, who spend their time on gossiping and commenting on others lives, unnecessarily. Scout trusts her so that she reveals her secrets, and for her she is almost a mother figure. She reflects on what she sees in Miss Maudie. While being optimistic and kind, Miss Maudie is not afraid to voice her beliefs or move against the popular opinion. At a ladies’ tea, she is upset by the woman being intolerant and racist towards their black helper and snaps at one of the women complaining about her cook. Scout recalls that, “When Miss Maudie was angry her brevity was icy. Something had made her deeply angry, and her grey eyes were as cold as her voice” (257). Miss Maudie is disgusted by the ill thoughts of people and does not subscribe to them. She also supports Scout and helps her to stand up against forces that try to push Scout into stereotypical judgments about others.
In contrast to Miss Maudie, Scout’s Aunt Alexandra represents the ideal Southern family-oriented woman. She is at the other end of the image, with her conventional beliefs and constant disapproval of Scout’s behavior. She complains about Scout wearing overalls to Atticus who is frustrated by her frequent criticism, and Scout describes the exchange as “The only time I ever heard Atticus speak sharply to anyone” (90). Scout does not understand her Aunt’s obsession with her clothing. Aunt Alexandra repeats that she cannot be a lady if she does not wear dresses and that she should engage in more ‘girly’ activities. She enforces this and tries to get Scout to conform to gender roles despite seeing her resistance to them. Scout reflects upon her Aunt’s attitude and says, “When Aunt Alexandra went to school, self-doubt could not be found in any textbook, so she knew not its meaning” (142). She does not support or guide Scout as Miss Maudie does, and tries to make her change. Scout does not follow her advice. Aunt Alexandra starts to sympathise at this point. When dealing with a crisis during her ladies’ tea, Aunt Alexandra regains her composure and handles it gracefully, resulting in Scout remarking, “If Aunty could be a lady at a time like this, so could I” (262).
In conclusion, all kinds of prejudice had existed, and has been existing in the society. Racial prejudice tears apart black and white people, class bias separates whites from whites as well, and finally gender bias split women and men. In racial prejudice as we see that fair just works on white people, in class bias we see that people show respect each other only for high status, and in the gender bias the roles of Miss Maudie and Aunt Alexandra are the most significant in Scout’s maturing and her formation of the perspective of the world. In a nutshell To Kill a Mockingbird covers several themes that are challenging and often uncomfortable to encounter and explore, such as racism and loss of innocence.