TRUST IN ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT SERVICES IN PAKISTAN: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY
Abdul Rahim Chandio1
M. Phil Scholar
Department of Public Administration
University of Sindh, Jamshoro
Dr. Zulfiqar Haider Zaidi2
Department of Public Administration
University of Sindh, Jamshoro
Department of Public Administration
University of Sindh, Jamshoro
Muhammad Qasim Nizamani4
Department of Mass Communication
University of Sindh, Jamshoro
The aim of the existing study is to investigate the research concerning the technological adoption. The study model contains the determinants of perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived usefulness (PU), social influence (SI), trust in e-Government (TIEG) and intention to use (ITU) and relevant antecedents are assumed to envisage the intention of public employees to use electronic services of government in Pakistan perspective. Also, pursuing the theoretical approach encompass the TAM, UTAUT, and TRA in discovering the technological adoption of the employee’s intention. The proposed framework model tested in an empirical way with the sampling of 243 in the Pakistan public sector (NADRA) employees who filled survey items as above mentioned determinants. Data analysis and results of the concerned study were obtained through SPSS version 24 and survey questionnaires were used to collect the data. For the data collection, 400 questionnaires were randomly distributed among the middle and lower level employees at Hyderabad and Larkana region. The returned questionnaires were 243 that remained 60.75% response rate. The multiple regressions and Pearson’s correlation test were used to examine hypotheses. The given results maintained the conceptual framework model sought to determine that all proposed constructs show the significant and positive relationship with dependent factor intention to use (ITU). The limitation of this study encompasses the use of e-services in the public department which is carried out in the developing country like Pakistan. It also provides an appropriate understanding regarding the technological acceptance by employees and assists to investigate the trust of employees to use innovative technology. The findings of this study could help the organization (NADRA) to generate new ideas, improve service delivery processes, customer services, and operational matters review their skills, and motivation-enhancing practices of e-services. Overall, the findings of the existing study lead towards a conceptual framework and its practical implications. The vitality of the existing research is concerning the public officials and e-schemes of Pakistan, as it pays attention to the significance of the constructs relating to e-Government adoption.
Keywords: E-government, Perceived ease of use, Perceived usefulness, Social influence, Trust in e-government, Intention to use, NADRA.
In the existing research of electronic government paid attention towards the adoption of e-Government or technology by employees via investigating their intention to use e-services of government. Thus the centrality of the whole discussion focused on the end determinant the intention to use e-Government (ITU). Such realistic approach cannot be denied for the reason that of the significance of technological use. The reliability of user can motivate crucial services of electronic government to meet the lives of the employees’ adoption of online means of services in the future. Henceforth, the world government initiates the reliability of the government’s online services as to be the major scientific tool to interact with its stakeholders (Al-Azri et al., 2010 and Bhuiyan, 2010; Bonk, 2002).
E-Government is a mechanism for utilizing technology to assure the provision of better services to citizens, employees, and businesses ((Yanqing, 2011; Muir and Oppenheim 2002). Research endeavored to find out determinants that would impact the employees’ decision to adopt e-government. A number of theories related to technological adaptations discovered such concerns and proposed enormous determinants to influence significantly on the utilization of technology or intention to use (ITU) electronic government. In this way, numerous scholars argue that it was the trust to be one of the powerful determinants to influence the intention to use (ITU) e-services of government significantly (Paravastu et al., 2014; Scherer and Wimmer 2014; Abu Shanab et al., 2010 and Pavlou, 2003). The concept of trust in electronic government is a behavioral approach which is difficult to assess the intention of employees to use e-government. According to (Abu-Shanab, 2014; Mahmood et al., 2014; Paravastu et al., 2014; Abu-Shanab and Al-Azzam 2012) trust is the chief agent to adopt e-government. If trust building of employees promoted concerning the use of electronic services of government then they can adapt it easily.
Henceforth there is a number of the research argue that trust dilemmas create surplus hindrances in the way to adopt electronic government and divert the intention of employees to use e-services of government and innovative technology (Albesher A 2016 and Dashti et al., 2010). Based on the earlier evidence and significance of the e-Government adoption it is essential to comprehend the technological adopting process whether the degree of the reliability of the user occupies a valuable venue in the case of technological adoption. Likely, several researchers support that the degree of reliability would prevail over the confidential approach in the way of e-Government adoption (Darrell M. West 2016; Al-Sobhi, 2011; J. Marijn et al., 2011 and Welch et al., 2005). Trust in electronic services of government is to bridge an effective involvement of employees to use e-Government (Abu-Shanab, 2014; Caldwell and Hansen, 2010; Gilbert et al., 2004 and Lind, 2001).
The prevailing study has paid attention to the trust related antecedents and discovers the constructs influencing the intention of employees to use e-government. The existing study is important to Pakistani perspective, as it is the first to investigate the dilemmas of trust assessment and measure the public employees’ intentional approach to use newly introduced technology in the organization. Also, by applying Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression tests to make possible to investigate the relationship among the dependent and independent variables and explore the effect of independent (PEOU, PU, SI, and TIEG) variables towards dependent variable (ITU). Finally, utilizing a validated instrument in the English language in which doors are disclosed for coming scholars to explore the innovative technological adoption in one of the Asian countries, as it possesses the similar culture and social values. Based on the given section, it presents the literature concerning the domain. Section 3 illustrates the research proposed model and items (questions) of the constructs with the related hypotheses and data analysis and results of the discussion presented in section 4. Section 5 portrays the research methodology pursued in the existing empirical study. In the last sections 6, 7 and 8 depict the conclusions, implications and research implications and future directions respectively.
Research possesses difference of opinion concerning the definition of e-Government whereas Sharma and Qian (2012) considered the provision of public services through an internet means and other multifaceted functions relating to the perception (Abu-Shanab, 2013). E-Government denotes a digital form of government to provide public services in a wireless means. There is a number of researchers who consider e-Government as electronic information and services substitute the traditional work mechanism (Alshehri, et al., 2012 and Bonk, 2002).
E-Government can be classified into three major categories; (G2C, G2B, and G2E). In this way, government to citizen (G2C) highlights the relationship of the general public with governments and the relationship between business sectors and governments can be incorporated into the category of government to business (G2B) whereas the existing study associates with government to employees (G2E) relationship in which interconnectivity of the public sectors employees with their governments pursued.
Defining e-Government is so important to assure in order to comprehend the expectations, needs of stakeholders and their healthier plan of online services given to them (Gauld, 2010; Colesca, 2009; Dunleavy, et al., 2005; Kunstelj, 2007 and Wimmer and Bredow, 2001). The demand and supply of e-Government are two major directions in which supply-side denotes the provision of government actions and demand is concerned with user’s acceptance (Lim et al., 2012 and Ho 2002). In the public sector, e-Government implies the wireless services delivered by the government to public officials in order to interconnect governments’ instructions to their offices to facilitate the job performance and digital human capital in an e-office means. There are diverse dimensions of the concepts of e-Government concerning the existing study:
Giving interconnectivity facilitation to public employees in Pakistan perspective;
Improving employees capabilities to operate the system ;
Developing e-office atmosphere to assure e-participation of employees and wireless instructions of the government;
Sustaining the demand and supply of e- official development and investigating the perceptional approach of employees on the digital divide.
The scope of electronic government in its multidimensional perspectives emerges in the form of e-voting, e-democracy, e-administration, and e-assistant (Wimmer and Bredow, 2001). The earlier scholars point out the vitality of trust in government is to integrate with the e-Government adoption (Mahmood et al., 2014; Taipale, 2013; Belanger and Carter, 2008 and Welch et al., 2005). Henceforth, trust is an influence agent to motivate employees’ intentional approach to adopt e-Government (Mahmood et al., 2014 and Kanaan, 2009).
2.1 Pakistan and e-Government
Trust is a chief influencing antecedent to success the e-projects of government. Trust in e-Government implies the users’ confidence that is based on the perception of the users’ developed reliability relating to electronic services. Henceforth, the government should create the relation of reliability with the user before the using the innovative technology (Al-Naimat et al., 2012 and Zeleti, 2011). Likely, Almarabeh and AbuAli, (2010) argue that governments require to establish confidence within departments, agencies, and other business and nongovernment sectors. Furthermore, trust is a key determinant in electronic government research. In this way, study conducted by Cetin et al., (2011) positioned trust as the sixth antecedent in the research concerning electronic government following perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived behavioral control (PBC), intention to use (ITU), and Social Influence (SI).
The prevailing study proposes to investigate the employee’s trust to use e-services in the public sector NADRA. The proposed factors of the framework of this study would assist to investigate the employees’ behavioral intention in the way of e-Government adoption in Pakistan. Ministry of Information Technology of Pakistan came into force in 2000 and launched the Directorate of e-Government under this ministry (Bhutto, et al., 2012 and Rahman 2010). E-Government in Pakistan faces numerous challenges which require more efforts to make it an adoptable. Thus Pakistan’s government must deal with a challenge to perceive whether the system can be capable to utilize electronic services of government in order to operate the technology in an effective and more efficient way (Haider et al., 2016). The given literature is concerning with the trust in electronic services of government in Pakistan, which utilizes ITU, PEOU, PU and SI constructs (Abbasi, et al., 2011; Anwer, 2016 and Rehman, M. et al., 2012).
Developing countries adhere the e-Government projects and execute and support the schemes in the diverse form like online recruitment systems, electronic voting system, electronic health technologies, electronic learning programs, and other e-services in order to mobilize the easy and reliable utility of technology. Besides this, the government of Pakistan takes a number of the initiative to some extent to launch e-Government projects. According to Haider et al., (2016) the government is drafting different projects of e-Government with its five-year plans. Moreover, in the majority of the Asian developing countries are motivated by e-Government services. Likely, the government of Pakistan also encourages getting initiatives and launching e-projects to give the appropriate e-services to citizens in a suitable and cost-effective way (Andersen 2009 and Asgarkhani, 2009). Pakistan faces unfavorable circumstances of e-Government that are because of political and financial catastrophe to rank her in the poor position among other Asian countries as it highlights in the given e-Government perception index below.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1. Source: UN survey report, 2014E-Government Rank (EGR), E-Government Index (EGI), E-participation Index (EPI), Online Service Index (OSI), Human Capital Index (HCI), Telecommunication infrastructure index (TII).
2.2 Adoption of e-Government and Antecedents of trust
The extant study assesses the intentional approach of public employees’ adoption of e-services or information technology. The researchers strived to apply the constructs that investigate the intention of employees to adopt innovative technology (Abu-shanab, 2014; Gilbert, et al., 2004 and Warkentin, et al., 2002). Likely, (Albesher, 2015; Abu Shanab and Al Azzam, 2012 and Gilbert, et al., 2004) argue that trust on the system by users can assist to adopt electronic government and ensure the triumph of e-projects. E-Government has been recognized as an instrument to provide online services to citizens as a substitute the traditional channels (Al Rashidi, .2013; Alshehri, et al., 2012; Bannister and Connolly, 2011; Affisco and Soliman, 2006 and Donnell et al., 2003).
E-Government is an online government used by the public and private sectors which are recognized under the jurisdiction of the legalized documentation of the law of the land. Moreover, an electronic government provides online services to citizens, organizations, multinational corporations and other governments (Al-Ghaith, et al., 2010; Shareef et al., 2009). Likely, numerous scholars call e-Government as an unproblematic public service providing by means of the Internet (Abu-Shanab, 2013; Sharma and Qian, 2012 and Akman et al., 2005). The existing literature discusses the factors relating the trust in the e-Government service that investigate the employee’s behavioral intention in order to build up the quality governance and effective administration. In this scenario the decline of public trust losses the reliability of government by the user which can stimulate a contradictory approach (Albesher, A. 2016; Caldwell, and Hansen, 2010). The majority of research urge to flourish the user trust in order to escape from the Gulf of trust deficit of contemporary governance which became the center of attention of a great deal of research and theory (Levi and Stoker, 2000; Tolbert and Mossberger, 2006). The emergence of the globalization and liberalization of the internet is being utilized as a source of dealing the affairs in every institution of human survival (Lean, et al., 2009). E-Government inclination “offers a unique opportunity to create self-sustaining change, in a broad range of closely connected technological, organizational, cultural, and social effects” (Dunleavy, et al., 2005, p. 467).
The extant research finds out the significant constructs that decide the use of trust in electronic services of government. In this manner, Beldad, et al., (2012) mention the significance of the PEOU factor that extensively influences the trust in government. The research developed hypotheses that nature to perceive usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), trust familiarity, perceived website quality (PWQ) and institution-based trust all will keep influence in the way of trust in electronic government (Alsaghier, et al., 2009). There is a number of previous studies have recognized trust as a significant construct to influence the intention to use (ITU) electronic government (Albesher, 2016; Mahmood et al., 2014 and Zhou, 2011). Perceived ease of use (PEOU) denotes an effortless use of and its easy adoption by the user. Perceived ease of use (PEOU) is defined as “the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort” (Davis, 1989 P 320). Likely, the researcher defined PEOU as the users’ degree of reliability to consider a system easy to use and perceiving the system as useful (Warkentin, et al., 2002).
The greater part of the research has been conducted in the developed countries that investigate significant linkages among (PEOU, PU, and ITU) e-Government (Hung, et al., 2006; Phang, et al., 2005; and Chang, et al., 2005). The researcher Davis et al., (1989) proposed the TAM model which is a most recognized model to utilize (PEOU and PU) in expecting the intention to use (ITU) e-government. Similarly, in the TAM model PEOU) and PU manipulates attitude of an individual towards the utilization of system that impacts behavioral intention of one to utilize a system, which, in return, finds out the actual system usage.
The proposed hypotheses that nurture to trust, PEOU, PU, and SI has influenced on intention to use e-Government services (Albesher, 2016; and Alsaghier, et al., 2009). Furthermore, it is argued that intention to use (ITU) e-Government connect the users’ perception with e-Government that is influenced by constructs such as (PEOU, PU, and TIEG) (Warkentin. et al., 2002). The study of various researchers designs their research in the electronic government to develop hypotheses that highlight the technological ease to use it to be a Challenge for various categories of societies, particularly in the countries of the developing nations (Colesca, 2009; Abu Shanab and Abu Baker, 2011). The theory of reasoned action (TRA) developed by Fishbein and Ajzen, (1975) in which PEOU and PU are two major factors to influence the users’ intention to use a system. Perceived ease of use (PEOU) is the most important predicting constructs to intention to use (Abu Shanab, 2014).
The perceived usefulness (PU) is a perception of a technology user in which the user considers it as a fruitful for one’s job’s performance. In the number of studies, the construct PU has been used as a powerful factor in the number of theories with the diverse names such as PU in TAM model, job fit (Thompson, et al., 1991) and relative gain by (Moore and Benbasat, 1991). In the structure of electronic government, there is a number of research applied PU as a predictor of intention to use (ITU) (Abu Shanab, 2010). Besides, there are numerous researchers who do not measure PU with PEOU with each other and these construct influence the intention to use directly (Abu shanab, 2014; Almuraqab, 2010 and Alomari, et al., 2012 and Hung, et al., 2006). The employee’s intention to use government’s e-services has been affected by the constructs TIEG, PU, and PEOU. According to, Warkentin, et al., (2002) recommended that the intention of the user to engage in e-Government is influenced by constructs such as PU, PEOU, and TIEG. Few researchers claim that the relative benefit of the technology acceptance is pertaining to perceived usefulness. Likely, Venkatesh, et al., (2003) argue that the relative advantage of technological acceptance is related to PU from the TAM model. Likely, technology acceptance model (TAM) also concerns to website use (Gefen, 2002; Warkentin, 2002 and Gefen and Straub, 1997), where PEOU and PU manipulate the adoption of the Internet.
ITU implies a designation of mind to intend and social perception to use government’s e-services by a consumer, client, and customer. Moreover, ITU has been defined by the research as (Abu Shanab, 2014 pg 499) “It is a degree to which citizens intend, plan and expect to use e-Government services”. Intention to use refers to an extent of perception or degree of a user to use the website in coming days. The term, intention mentions a perception which is concerned with the people in the way to adopt electronic government henceforth the notion of the intention is being related to use electronic government owing to investigate the intention of computer users in the private and public sector. A satisfied intention of technology users can enhance the technological adoption. Intention to use electronic government (ITU) is adapted to use with other various constructs. In this way, users’ intention for using technology is encouraged where PU and PEOU are found at the higher degree, (Davis 1989). The trust in e-Government relies on the perception of people to use information technology (IT). Trust in electronic government (TIEG) has been carried out in the studies of many scholars. The research conducted by majority scholars in the developing countries to investigate the significance of technological modernism with its relationship between PEOU, PU and ITU relating to trust in e-Government (Phang, et al., 2005; Hung, et al., 2006 and Chang, et al., 2005).
The study carried out by the researcher that investigated the impact of trust in government on the users which can add to the intention to utilize the government’s e-services (Abu Shanab, 2014). Quality constructs produce a powerful investigating mechanism in order to intent to use electronic government that assists in adopting the e-services. According to (Thompson, et al., 2008 and Alomari, et al., 2012), the quality constructs possess diverse sound effects on intention to continue utilizing the website with satisfaction. There are numerous prior studies have recognized trust as an important construct to influence the intentional behavior to use electronic government (Belanger and Carter, 2008; Shin, et al., 2010 and Susanto et al., 2013). Similarly, trust has a deep considerable influence on the users’ intention to adopt e-Government services. Likely, the study of Gefen, et al., (2002) proved a positive impact of trust on the intention to utilize the e-services of government. Trust possesses a close relationship with the utilization of e-government. In the studies of numerous scholars have revealed the vitality of trust in the adoption of modern technologies in order to identify trust as a major construct of intention to use e-Government (Belanger and Carter, 2008; Al sobhi, 2011and Susanto, et al., 2013).
There are various theories which assist in investigating the intention of employees to adopt the technology. The earlier studies are mainly based on TAM models for example, TRA, Fishbein and Ajzen, (1975) the diffusion of innovation (DOI) (Fishbein, et al., 1975), TAM (Davis 1989), the UTAUT model (Venkatesh, 2003) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen 1991) and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), which presented the valuable implications of an individual intention to use technological services (Huang et al., 2003). The positive sentiment regarding the users’ intention to use e-services of government enhance with the technological progress and innovativeness. The viewpoint of users (a positive sentiment to intent to use e-government) regarding the e-Government adoption as a manner to reveal technically able and politically progressiveness will develop the intention to use e-services of government (Belanger and Carter, 2008). Furthermore, numerous theories of technology adoption revealed such concern and planned a huge set of constructs that possess significant impact the user to intent to use the technology. Intention to use e-Government is a powerful vehicle to produce the users’ intention o to adopt e-services of government.
It is recognized that intention to use is one of the influential variables that outstandingly influenced the trust in e-services of government (Al-Gahtani, 2011; Abu Shanab., et al., 2010 and Gefen, et al., 2005). In the literature of electronic government, trust was revealed as an antecedent of ITU (Abu Shanab, et al., 2010). Intention to use (ITU) is a dependent variable which highlights that if the intention of the user of e-Government increases that can support the trust in technology and its alternative result will be positive which is assumed it positively in the hypothesis. The study conducted by researcher revealed that ITU and TIEG possess a significant relationship (Thomas, et al., (2008).
The social influence denotes a perception of a person’s attitude that impact by the others believed to support a view as a result of technological using (Venkatesh, et al., 2003). Social influence is an influential determinant to support to investigate the internet user’s attitude and make it more adaptable to them (Abbasi, et al., 2010). It highlights the earlier scholarly services regarding the relationship between the above-mentioned constructs. These extant studies assist to construct the conceptual framework of this study to impact the intentional behavior of employees to adopt technology (Albesher, 2015; Abu Shanab, 2014; Abbasi, 2011 and Venkatesh, et al., 2003).
Technology adoption theory
The researchers applied diverse theories concerning the adoption of technology from which proposed constructs were derived. Likely, the prevailing study is based on the theoretical approach of the earlier scholars in which PEOU, PU and ITU constructs have been derived from the TAM model (Davis, et al., 1989 and Venkatesh, et al., 2003), whereas social influence (SI) has been borrowed from the UTAUT model (Venkatesh et al., 2003).
Moreover, earlier research also tried to create the center of attention on predicting the adoption of e-Government by discovering the determinants influencing the users’ decision to adopt technological use as included in classical theories of technology acceptance. The proposed model based on the major theories of technology adoption such as TAM, TAM2, (Davis, et al., 1989) TRA and UTAUT model as an extended theoretical notion concerning acceptance of the technology. The majority of theories presumed the ITU to be influenced by chief constructs: PU and PEOU depicted in the TAM model, UTAUT model and innovation diffusion theory (IDT) (Rogers, 1995). Moreover, social influence (SI) considered an important determinant of the UTAUT model (Venkatesh, et al., 2003) and TRA (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975).
3. The conceptual framework model
The proposed conceptual framework model of the existing study is based on the major theories of the technology acceptance model like the TAM model, TRA, and UTAUT model. The proposed constructs of this study have been derived from the above-mentioned theories in which PEOU and PU envisaged in TAM and, UTAUT model whereas social influence depicted in TRA and UTAUT. In the number of theories like (TAM1 ;2, UTAUT, and IDT) presumed that the intention to use (ITU) e-Government will be influenced by key constructs like PU, PEOU, and SI. The prevailing study proposed a set of antecedents to be hypothesized to impact the trust in e-Government via investigating the intention to use the technology.
Perceived ease of use
Intention to use e-Government
Trust in e-Government
Figure 1. Study Proposed Conceptual Model
H1. There is a significant positive relationship between Perceived ease of use (PEOU) and Intention to use E-Government (ITU).
The existing study shows the significant positive relationship between the independent and dependent variable like PEOU and ITU. Likely, this study is in the line of past studies (Albesher, 2016 and Abu-Shanab, 2014).
H2: There is a positive relationship between Perceived usefulness (PU) and Intention to use (ITU).
Perceived usefulness (PU) is a strong determinant used in the number of theories with diverse names such as (PU) in the technology acceptance model (TAM) and Thompson et al., (1991) utilized it as in the name of job fit and Moore and Benbasat, (1991) named it as relative advantage respectively. Abu-Shanab et al., (2010) utilized PU as a predictor of ITU and there are numerous researchers who do not measure PU with PEOU as these factors were directly measured with ITU (Abu shanab 2014; Shin-Yuan Hung, et al., 2006; Almuraqab, 2016 and Alomari, et al., 2012).
H3: There is a significant positive relationship between Social Influence (SI) and Intention to use (ITU).
This study shows a significant relationship between SI and ITU. In the study of a number of research pointed out an effective association between SI and ITU (Venkatesh et al., 2003; Abu-Shanab and Pearson, 2007). It is a significant part of a study to judge the influence of others decided to use e-services to indicate as to be an important construct in the domain of the technology acceptance (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen, 1991 and Ahmad 2012).
H4: There is a positive relationship between Trust in E-Government (TIEG) and intention to use (ITU).
The positive relationship has been found between TIEG and ITU. Likely, there is numerous research that measures trust in e-Government with the dependent factor ITU through a slight modification of language (Hung 2006; Lemuria Carter ; France Bélanger 2005 and Lemuria Carter 2008).
4. Results and discussion
The quantitative research, positivism philosophical approach and cross-sectional deductive survey design were proposed in this study. However, this method already has been used by other domain researchers like (Albesher, 2015; Abu-shanab, 2014; Thompson, 2014 and Abbasi, et al., 2011). In the initial step, it is verified the proposed items to suit the study. Five-point Likert scale (1= strongly disagree, 2= Disagree, 3= Neutral, 4= Agree, 5= strongly agree) was adopted for data collection in which researcher distributed a packet of survey consist of the questionnaire. Means and Standard deviation of the given items of the proposed variables of this study are depicted in Table III. Twenty-three items were utilized to perceive the employees’ intention to use e-services of government in the public sector in Pakistan. The exceeding three percentages of the mean is to be considered suitable whereas all proposed items are exceeding the three. It clarifies that innovative technology is adopting in the public sector in great progressive due to increasing vitality of globalization and information technology in Pakistan’s society.
Variables Description Frequency Percentage
Gender Male 197 81.1
Female 46 18.9
Age 21-30 36 14.8
31-40 153 63.0
41-50 39 16.0
51-60 15 6.2
Marital Status Single 67 27.6
Married 162 66.7
Divorced/widow 14 5.8
Education Bachelor 100 41.2
Master 137 56.4
M.Phil/ P.hd 6 2.5
Job Experience Less than 1 year 93 38.3
1-5 years 128 52.7
6-10 years 18 7.4
11-15 years 4 1.6
Number of dependents 1-2 83 34.2
3-4 68 28.0
5-6 15 6.2
7+ 2 .8
NONE 75 30.9
Table 2: Demographic Characteristics
Item statement (short description in English) Mean SD
Q1: I intend to use e-Government systems (ITU) 3.675 .9563
Q2: I expect to use e-Government systems (ITU) 3.7325 .84700
Q3: I plan to use e-Government systems (ITU) 3.6996 .86021
Q4: Using e-Government services will be easy for me (PEOU) 3.6543 .83558
Q5: It is easy for me to get what I need from e-Government services (PEOU) 3.7078 .75585
Q56: It would be easy for me to become skillful at using an electronic system (PEOU) 3.7778 .72157
Q7: I would find an electronic system to be flexible to interact with (PEOU) 3.8025 .73439
Q8: Overall, I find the electronic system easy to use (PEOU) 3.8230 .75894
Q9: E-Government services help me to finish things faster (PU) 3.8560 .74401
Q10: E-Government services would make it easier to do my job (PU) 3.7654 .77574
Q11: Using electronic services improves my job performance (PU) 3.7942 .77062
Q12: I would find e-Government useful in my job (PU) 3.8395 .73502
Q13: Using electronic system increases my productivity (PU) 3.8230 .78570
Q14: People who influence me think that I should use E-Government (SI) 3.6996 .73594
Q15: Important people for me think that I should use E-Government (SI) 3.6049 .68657
Q16: Important people for me think that using e-Government is useful (SI) 3.8025 .75656
Q17: I trust public departments and institutions (TIEG) 3.6914 .71539
Q18: I trust the government’s capability in providing safe e-services (TIEG) 3.7037 .71196
Q19: I trust that citizens’ interest is the government’s first priority (TIEG) 3.7119 .77629
Q20: It is easy for me to trust e-Government systems (TIEG) 3.6914 .71539
Q21: I have a desire to trust e-Government systems (TIEG) 3.7449 .76109
Q22: I tend to trust the e-Government system even if I know little about it (TIEG) 3.7778 .72727
Q23: I trust in a high degree the e-Government system (TIEG) 3.7366 .70166
Valid N (listwise) Table 3. The mean and standard deviations of survey items
It is essential to check the multivariate correlation to investigate the relationship between variable. In this way, tests were conducted to examine the independent and dependent variables relationship via Pearson’s Correlation. Results point out a significant relation at 0.1 level whereas all variables of the conceptual model in this study are supported.
Items ITU PEOU PU SI TIEG
Intention to use (ITU) 1 Perceived ease of use (PEOU) .588** 1 Perceived usefulness (PU) .579** .506** 1 Social influence (SI) .534** .493** .470** 1 Trust in e-Government (TIEG) .561** .568** .553** .531** 1
Table 4: Pearson Correlation
The correlation between all constructs is (.470 to .588) whereas correlation of the PEOU (.588), PU (.579_.506) SI (.534_.493) and TIEG (.568_.531) confirmed. The highest correlation depicted between PEOU and ITU (.588**) and lowest correlation is between social influence and perceived usefulness (.470).
The multiple regression analysis was carried out to discover the effect of independent and dependent variables or test the hypothesis. On the basis of the results of the regression, all hypothesis are developed successfully. Also, the beta, “t” values of the constructs are listed in the following table.
Variable Cronbach’s Alpha Stand. Beta t value Significance level H Hypothesis status
Perceived ease of use (PEOU) .764 .268 4.564 .000 H1 Supported
Perceived usefulness (PU) .771 .264 4.518 .000 H2 Supported
Social influence (SI) .684 .192 3.360 .001 H3 Supported
Trust in e-Government (TIEG) .831 .160 2.578 .011 H4 Supported
Note: ITU *dependent variable for this study
5. Research Methodology
In the positivism philosophical approach has been carried out in the existing study in which cross-sectional deductive survey design is proposed. Quantitative methodology was applied in this research. To this context, a structured measurement instrument was adopted from the domain literature to measure the intention to use (ITU). However, this method already has been used by other domain researchers like (Albesher, 2015; Abu-shanab, 2014; Thompson, 2014 and Abbasi et al., 2011).
5.1 The Survey Questionnaire
The existing study developed a questionnaire survey which encompasses three sections such as the research area and research objectives. In this way, research introduction pursued the significance of respondents belong to Pakistani public sector employees of NADRA in which data was to be collected from the middle and lower level employees were utilized for the data collection. In the next section, demographic questions incorporated concerning age, gender, education level, present marital status, number of dependents, and job experience. Finally, 23 items for measuring the 5 constructs were included which were adopted from the earlier research (Davis, 1989; Venkatesh et al., 2003; Abu Shanab, and Abu-Baker, 2011 and Continental, 2011). The distribution of survey questionnaires (items) was described in table 2 written in the English language which encompasses the means and standard deviations that also support to maintain validity, instrument reliability.
Sample and Sampling Process
The population of the concerned study comprises employees of Pakistan’s public sector NADRA adopting innovative technology and e-services of government. The sampling of the existing study is confined to public sector employees of the different working units into two divisions (Larkana and Hyderabad) of the Sindh province of Pakistan.
The study population is 650 (estimated according to the average population per NADRA working unit) lower and middle-level employees (www.nadra.gov.pk) and Bureau of statistics). The key sources of the respondents belong to middle and lower employees whereas researcher distributed 400 questionnaires randomly, out of that 243 (60.75%) were returned. In this way, the questionnaire pursued five points Likert scale for data collection. The sampling process accomplished in 2018 that took two months to secure packet of the survey (questionnaires) back from the respondents.
The participants consent was maintained on the volunteer participation basis before distributing the survey questionnaire. The survey instrument was distributed to participants by the personal visit of the researcher. The survey instrument was administered in the English language. In this study, the instructions of Krejcie and Morgan (1970) were followed for sampling. In the steps, hypotheses were tested. In the initial step, Pearson’s Correlation test was applied to discover the independent and dependent variables relationships. The multiple regression analysis is the second step to be performed to discover the effect of independent and dependent variables. Table I shows the demographic sample.
The prevailing research designed aim to improve comprehensiveness the proposed constructs (PU, PEOU, SI, and TIEG) to influence the ITU. The proposed framework model contained five major factors concerning the domain of the technology acceptance. Trust in e-Government was envisaged by four independent factors as PEOU, PU, SI, and TIEG to show the positive significant relationship with ITU. The hypotheses were designed on the basis of independent and dependent variables relationships. The findings revealed statistically significant positive relationships between the independent and the dependent variable. The prevailing study pertains to the conceptual framework model tested in empirical means where the current condition of e-Government of Pakistan has been investigated. In this way, the correlation between all constructs is (.470 to .588) whereas multiple regression analysis investigated the effect of independent variables towards dependent variable on the basis of the results of the beta, “t” values of the constructs. For the data analysis, 243 sample size was used for final analysis by applying the statistical packages for Social Science (SPSS) version 24.0 for windows, .915 was the overall reliability of survey questionnaire. This study may support the literature and practitioner by using electronic government and it assists to investigate to measure the intentional approach regarding the innovative technology.
7. Research Implications
This existing study may contribute to the general literature and particularly for Pakistan. With regard to contributions, this research could provide many benefits and an appropriate understanding to public sector employees and organization regarding the technological acceptance. The findings of the existing study urge government to stimulate the information technological measures in the public sectors. Moreover, it must be encouraged to motivate general public awareness of technological benefits. It also assists to investigate the trust of employees, in which chief cause behind the dilemma of technology adoption can find out. The existing study can stimulate the innovativeness by highlighting the measures to meet the issue. The findings of this study could help organization NADRA to generate new ideas, improve the process of service delivery, customer services, and operational matters review their skills, and motivation-enhancing e-services practices. The middle and lower level employees in the public sector NADRA showed interest in this research study, of the specific region whereas it is recommended to enhance this type of study at the country level.
8. Limitations and future research directions
The existing study encompasses the cross-sectional design of the study. Moreover, the extant study was conducted involuntary participation basis and respondents and uses the single source data. The reliability and validity issues may arise with the information secured from the respondents via questionnaires which were based on the self-reported by the respondents. It is possible that trust building of employees concerning the innovation of technological adoption creates a distinct sentiment of the user that reacts differently in the organization. While having the same instrument future researcher can expand the area at the country level rather than focusing on the single city of the province. The future researcher can validate the model of this study in one of the Asian countries, as it shares similar social and cultural values.
The researcher can apply the more technological and behavioral factors such as (information quality, service quality, trust in technology, trust in government, privacy and security concerns and trust) to investigate the intention to use e-Government by employees in the private and public sector. It is recommended the future researcher to investigate the direct effect on the citizens’ attitude and their intention to use e-Government and citizens’ trust propensity on citizens’ behavioral intention must be examined in Pakistan’s perspective. It can find out the additional effects of trust constructs in the diverse nature of the study and disclose the door for the coming researchers to the intention of the technological use in Pakistan in its multidimensional aspects.
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